建筑的七盏明灯 The Seven Lamps of Architecture

约翰·拉斯金 John Ruskin. (1849). 建筑的七盏明灯 The Seven Lamps of Architecture.

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  • Form Ornament Decoration Arrangement Order Size Space Structure
  • Line Surface Moulding Mass Square Abstraction
  • Wall Window Tower Flower Leaves
  • Time Nature Place
  • Stone Iron Marble Material Labor
  • Color Light Shadow Eye Sense Pleasure
  • Small Large Simple Long High

祭祀之灯 The Lamp of Sacrifice

建筑是就屋宇进行排布与装饰的艺术,无论作何用途,它所营造的情境有益于人的精神健康,能赋予人力量与愉悦。

Architecture is the art which so disposes and adorns the edifices raised by man for whatsoever uses, that the sight of them contributes to his mental health, power and pleasure.

那些无用之处,成就了建筑。明确区分建筑与构筑物并不容易,因为大多数构筑物具有建筑的气质,也没有哪个建筑不是构筑物。但将两者区分是必要的,也很容易理解这一点,即建筑超越了其日常使用范畴。

Which is useless, that is Architecture. It may not be always easy to draw the line so sharply and simply, because there are few buildings which have not some pretence or color of being architectural; neither can there be any architecture which is not based on building, nor any good architecture which is not based on good building; but it is perfectly easy and very necessary to keep the ideas distinct, and to understand fully that Architecture concerns itself only with those characters of an edifice which are above and beyond its common use.

献祭的精神是最不理性、最富激情的,或许是现代主义彻底的对立面,因为现代主义最大的愿望就是以最低的成本获取最大的成果。

Spirit of Sacrifice is therefore most unreasoning and enthusiastic, and perhaps best negatively defined, as the opposite of the prevalent feeling of modern times, which desires to produce the largest results at the least cost.

只要有可能,我愿意把所有的华丽、精心和美都引入住宅,但我不愿把钱花在不起眼的装饰或礼仪上,比如天花板和门上的线脚、窗帘的流苏等等。这些东西已经变成愚蠢的定式,它们占据了大半的生活开支,却毁掉了生活大半的的舒适度、人性化、体面、新鲜感和便捷性。

我并不是说装饰没有意义,但我要强调地说,住宅上那些事倍功半的装饰,它们费用的十分之一就足以为英格兰的每个城镇建造一座大理石教堂。这样的教堂,哪怕只是日常散步路过,也应该是一种快乐和幸事。

I would fain introduce into it all magnificence, care, and beauty, where they are possible, but I would not have that useless expense in unnoticed fineries or formalities;cornicings of ceilings and graining of doors, and fringing of curtains, and thousands such; things which have become foolishly and apathetically habitual; things which cause half the expense of life, and destroy more than half its comfort, manliness, respectability, freshness, and facility.

I do not say that such things have not their place and propriety; but I say this, emphatically, that the tenth part of the expense which is sacrificed in domestic vanities, if not absolutely and meaninglessly lost in domestic discomforts, and incumbrances, would, if collectively offered and wisely employed, build a marble church for every town in England; such a church as it should be a joy and a blessing even to pass near in our daily ways and walks.

问题甚至不在于我们要做多少,而是如何去做;不是如何做得更多,而是做得更好。

It is not even a question of how much we are to do, but of how it is to be done; it is not a question of doing more, but of doing better.

如果你用不起大理石,那就用石灰岩,但要从最好的石床开采;如果用不起石材,那就用砖,但要用最好的砖。

If you cannot afford marble, use Caen stone, but from the best bed; and if not stone, brick, but the best brick.

好的装饰不会过度,只有糟糕的装饰才会过度。

Ornament cannot be overcharged if it be good, and is always overcharged when it is bad.

建造者们为之献出的其他一切内容——他们当时的趣味、意图和成就——都已消逝。我们无法得知他们付出了什么,也无从了解他们得到了什么回报。胜利、财富、权威、幸福——都已逝去,尽管它们是许多人付出了痛苦的牺牲才换来的。但是他们和他们的生活,以及他们在大地上的辛劳,在那些饱经风霜的石头中,留给我们的只有一份奖赏,一份证据。他们将权力、荣耀和过错带进坟墓,却给我们留下了他们的敬畏精神。

All else for which the builders sacrificed, has passed away—all their living interests, and aims, and achievements. We know not for what they labored, and we see no evidence of their reward. Victory, wealth, authority, happiness—all have departed, though bought by many a bitter sacrifice. But of them, and their life, and their toil upon the earth, one reward, one evidence, is left to us in those gray heaps of deep-wrought stone. They have taken with them to the grave their powers, their honors, and their errors; but they have left us their adoration.

ⅩⅤ

真实之灯 The Lamp of Truth

当承重情况不为人所知,那么将其真实承重情况隐藏起来也就不算欺骗了,它只是让人以为真实的承重情况就是如此。

It is no deceit when the weight to be borne is necessarily unknown, to conceal also the means of bearing it, leaving only to be perceived so much of the support as is indeed adequate to the weight supposed.

建筑最原初的经验和法则必须仰赖于材料的可得性,它们必须能够从地球表面大量获得。

Its first existence and its earliest laws must depend upon the use of materials accessible in quantity, and on the surface of the earth.

建筑这一行当有如酿酒,人由于人性的软弱而饮用它,却并非由于营养价值而饮用它。

For it is in this license as in that of wine, a man may use it for his infirmities, but not for his nourishment.

ⅩⅠ

如果我们以人类的智慧,会确定无疑地给蜥蜴一个钢的下巴,给磨齿兽一个铸铁的头骨,而忘却那所有生物都见证的宏大法则:秩序和系统比力量更高贵。

We, in our wisdom, should, doubtless, have given the lizard a steel jaw, and the myodon a cast-iron headpiece, and forgotten the great principle to which all creation bears witness, that order and system are nobler things than power.

ⅩⅢ

灰泥可以用作壁画的基材。但是,用灰泥覆盖砖块,再分缝,使其看起来像石头,这是在欺骗。

The plaster, in this case, is to be considered as the gesso ground on panel or canvas. But to cover brick with cement, and to divide this cement with joints that it may look like stone, is to tell a falsehood; and is just as contemptible a procedure as the other is noble.

他能迷惑我们,但不能欺骗我们。

He can enchant us, but cannot betray.

ⅩⅤ

刷白虽然经常(决不是总是)让人遗憾地认为是一种隐藏,但不能指责它是虚假的。它显露出它自身,但并不企图改变它所覆盖的东西。

Whitewash though often (by no means always) to be regretted as a concealment, is not to be blamed as a falsity. It shows itself for what it is, and asserts nothing of what is beneath it.

ⅩⅥ

用珍贵的石材装饰砖墙的表面需要给予尊重的评价。如果能够清楚理解大理石贴面并不伪装成或暗示成一整面大理石墙,这就并无坏处。

Facing of brick with precious stone needs respectful judgment.If it be clearly understood that a marble facing does not pretend or imply a marble wall, there is no harm in it.

这是真实而忠实的建筑方式;只有当无法做到这一点,外在着色的做法才不会显得低劣。

This is the true and faithful way of building; where this cannot be, the device of external coloring may, indeed, be employed without dishonor.

最好使用不那么光亮,但更持久的构造。

Better the less bright, more enduring fabric.

ⅩⅧ

装饰有两个泾渭分明的愉悦之源:一个是形式的抽象美,目前我们假定无论是手工还是机械作品,全都一样;另一个是人类在作品上付出的劳动和心血感。

Ornament has two entirely distinct sources of agreeableness: one, that of the abtract beauty of its forms, which, for the present, we will suppose to be the same whether they come from the hand or the machine; the other, the sense of human labor and care spent upon it.

ⅩⅨ

让事物失去价值的,不是材料本身的缺陷,而是人类所付出劳动的不足。

For it is not the material, but the absence of the human labor, which makes the thing worthless

ⅩⅩ

宏伟之灯 The Lamp of Power

当记忆转向那些为我们带来愉悦感的建筑时,我们会发现他们大致可以分成两类:一种以极致的精致为特征,我们回想他们时带着感性的仰慕;另一种带着神秘的威严庄重,我们回忆它时带着挥之不去的尊重,仿佛面对宏伟的神灵之力。

In thus reverting to the memories of those works of architecture by which we have been most pleasurably impressed, it will generally happen that they fall into two broad classes: the one characterized by an exceeding preciousness and delicacy, to which we recur with a sense of affectionate admiration; and the other by a severe, and, in many cases, mysterious, majesty, which we remember with an undiminished awe, like that felt at the presence and operation of some great Spiritual Power.

两种建筑形式的区别不仅仅在于其本身的美丽和宏伟,同时也是人类改造自然或顺应自然的区别。

The difference between these two orders of building is not merely that which there is in nature between things beautiful and sublime. It is, also, the difference between what is derivative and original in man’s work.

事实上,人类对尺度的感知,无论自然之物还是建筑,依赖于其所激发的想象,而不是肉眼所见的的真实度量。

The fact is, that the apprehension of the size of natural objects, as well as of architecture, depends more on fortunate excitement of the imagination than on measurements by the eye.

在许多建筑的分类中,我最感兴趣的是,分为只关注墙的分隔线的建筑物,和只关心的墙壁建筑物……现在,这两个原则都得到了大自然的承认,一个在她的树林和灌木丛中,另一个在她的平原上,还有峭壁和水域。但后者显然是力量的来源,在某种意义上,也是美的来源。

Of the many broad divisions under which architecture may be considered, none appear to me more significant than that into buildings whose interest is in their walls, and those whose interest is in the lines dividing their walls……Now, both these principles are admitted by Nature, the one in her woods and thickets, the other in her plains, and cliffs, and waters,but the latter is pre-eminently the principle of power, and, in some sense, of beauty also.

建筑师应该像画家一样少住在城市里。把他送到山上,让他在那里研究大自然通过堡垒和穹顶能理解什么。建筑的古老力量中有某种东西,与其说它来自公民,不如说它来自隐士。

An architect should live as little in cities as a painter. Send him to our hills, and let him study there what nature understands by a buttress, and what by a dome. There was something in the old power of architecture, which it had from the recluse more than from the citizen.

ⅩⅩⅣ

美丽之灯 The Lamp of Beauty

建筑的价值取决于两个截然不同的特征:一个是人类力量造就的形象,另一个是它所承载的自然创造的形象。

The value of architecture depended on two distinct characters: the one, the impression it receives from human power; the other, the image it bears of the natural creation.

所有最美丽的形式和想法都直接取自自然物体……我知道这是一个粗糙的假设,因为直接复制自然的形状并不美。

All most lovely forms and thoughts are directly taken from natural objects……I know this is a bold assumption,since forms are not beautiful because they are copied from nature.

我相信我们可以推论常见的就是美的……我所说的常见指的是有限和孤立的常见,这是所有完美的特征,而不仅仅是数量上的多:就像玫瑰是一朵普通的花一样,但树上的玫瑰并不像树叶那样多。

I believe that we may reason from Frequency to Beauty…… I mean that limited and isolated frequency which is characteristic of all perfection; not mere multitude: as a rose is a common flower, but yet there are not so many roses on the tree as there are leaves.

当我们向大自然寻求关于形式的指导时,我们也向她学习色彩的管理。

As we looked to Nature for instruction respecting form, we look to her also to learn the management of color.

ⅩⅩⅤ

生命之灯 The Lamp of Life

美的本质特征有相当一部分依赖于生命力在有机体中的表现,或依赖于对无生命的力量的臣服。

No inconsiderable part of the essential characters of Beauty depended on the expression of vital energy in organic things, or on the subjection to such energy, of things naturally passive and powerless.

记忆之灯 The Lamp of Memory

如画的建筑,它的装饰取决于细碎的光影而不是轮廓的纯粹性。当细节被磨损时,他们并不会变得糟糕,反而能获得丰富的效果。这种的风格,尤其是法国哥特,通常适用于易被腐蚀材料,比如砖头、砂岩、或软石灰石。强调纯粹线条的风格,比如意大利哥特,必须采用坚硬耐久的材料,比如蛇纹花岗岩或结晶大理石。毫无疑问,地方的材料影响风格的形成,这也应该成为我们选择材料与风格时的原则。

Architecture which are picturesque,whose decoration depends on the arrangement of points of shade rather than on purity of outline, do not suffer, but commonly gain in richness of effect when their details are partly worn away. Such styles, pre-eminently that of French Gothic, should always be adopted when the materials to be employed are liable to degradation, as brick, sandstone, or soft limestone.Styles in any degree dependent on purity of line, as the Italian Gothic, must be practised altogether in hard and undecomposing materials, granite serpentine, or crystalline marbles. There can be no doubt that the nature of the accessible materials influenced the formation of both styles; and it should still more authoritatively determine our choice of either.

ⅩⅦ

顺从之灯 The Lamp of Obedience


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