约翰·拉斯金 John Ruskin. (1849). 建筑的七盏明灯 The Seven Lamps of Architecture.
The Seven Lamps of Architecture
- Form Ornament Decoration Arrangement Order Size Space Structure
- Line Surface Moulding Mass Square Abstraction
- Wall Window Tower Flower Leaves
- Time Nature Place
- Stone Iron Marble Material Labor
- Color Light Shadow Eye Sense Pleasure
- Small Large Simple Long High
祭祀之灯 The Lamp of Sacrifice
Architecture is the art which so disposes and adorns the edifices raised by man for whatsoever uses, that the sight of them contributes to his mental health, power and pleasure.
Which is useless, that is Architecture. It may not be always easy to draw the line so sharply and simply, because there are few buildings which have not some pretence or color of being architectural; neither can there be any architecture which is not based on building, nor any good architecture which is not based on good building; but it is perfectly easy and very necessary to keep the ideas distinct, and to understand fully that Architecture concerns itself only with those characters of an edifice which are above and beyond its common use.Ⅰ
Spirit of Sacrifice is therefore most unreasoning and enthusiastic, and perhaps best negatively defined, as the opposite of the prevalent feeling of modern times, which desires to produce the largest results at the least cost.Ⅲ
I would fain introduce into it all magnificence, care, and beauty, where they are possible, but I would not have that useless expense in unnoticed fineries or formalities；cornicings of ceilings and graining of doors, and fringing of curtains, and thousands such; things which have become foolishly and apathetically habitual; things which cause half the expense of life, and destroy more than half its comfort, manliness, respectability, freshness, and facility.
I do not say that such things have not their place and propriety; but I say this, emphatically, that the tenth part of the expense which is sacrificed in domestic vanities, if not absolutely and meaninglessly lost in domestic discomforts, and incumbrances, would, if collectively offered and wisely employed, build a marble church for every town in England; such a church as it should be a joy and a blessing even to pass near in our daily ways and walks.Ⅶ
It is not even a question of how much we are to do, but of how it is to be done; it is not a question of doing more, but of doing better.
If you cannot afford marble, use Caen stone, but from the best bed; and if not stone, brick, but the best brick.Ⅹ
Ornament cannot be overcharged if it be good, and is always overcharged when it is bad.
All else for which the builders sacrificed, has passed away—all their living interests, and aims, and achievements. We know not for what they labored, and we see no evidence of their reward. Victory, wealth, authority, happiness—all have departed, though bought by many a bitter sacrifice. But of them, and their life, and their toil upon the earth, one reward, one evidence, is left to us in those gray heaps of deep-wrought stone. They have taken with them to the grave their powers, their honors, and their errors; but they have left us their adoration.ⅩⅤ
真实之灯 The Lamp of Truth
It is no deceit when the weight to be borne is necessarily unknown, to conceal also the means of bearing it, leaving only to be perceived so much of the support as is indeed adequate to the weight supposed.Ⅶ
Its first existence and its earliest laws must depend upon the use of materials accessible in quantity, and on the surface of the earth.Ⅸ
For it is in this license as in that of wine, a man may use it for his infirmities, but not for his nourishment.ⅩⅠ
We, in our wisdom, should, doubtless, have given the lizard a steel jaw, and the myodon a cast-iron headpiece, and forgotten the great principle to which all creation bears witness, that order and system are nobler things than power.ⅩⅢ
The plaster, in this case, is to be considered as the gesso ground on panel or canvas. But to cover brick with cement, and to divide this cement with joints that it may look like stone, is to tell a falsehood; and is just as contemptible a procedure as the other is noble.
He can enchant us, but cannot betray.ⅩⅤ
Whitewash though often (by no means always) to be regretted as a concealment, is not to be blamed as a falsity. It shows itself for what it is, and asserts nothing of what is beneath it.ⅩⅥ
Facing of brick with precious stone needs respectful judgment.If it be clearly understood that a marble facing does not pretend or imply a marble wall, there is no harm in it.
This is the true and faithful way of building; where this cannot be, the device of external coloring may, indeed, be employed without dishonor.
Better the less bright, more enduring fabric.ⅩⅧ
Ornament has two entirely distinct sources of agreeableness: one, that of the abtract beauty of its forms, which, for the present, we will suppose to be the same whether they come from the hand or the machine; the other, the sense of human labor and care spent upon it.ⅩⅨ
For it is not the material, but the absence of the human labor, which makes the thing worthlessⅩⅩ
宏伟之灯 The Lamp of Power
In thus reverting to the memories of those works of architecture by which we have been most pleasurably impressed, it will generally happen that they fall into two broad classes: the one characterized by an exceeding preciousness and delicacy, to which we recur with a sense of affectionate admiration; and the other by a severe, and, in many cases, mysterious, majesty, which we remember with an undiminished awe, like that felt at the presence and operation of some great Spiritual Power.Ⅰ
The difference between these two orders of building is not merely that which there is in nature between things beautiful and sublime. It is, also, the difference between what is derivative and original in man’s work.Ⅱ
The fact is, that the apprehension of the size of natural objects, as well as of architecture, depends more on fortunate excitement of the imagination than on measurements by the eye.Ⅳ
Of the many broad divisions under which architecture may be considered, none appear to me more significant than that into buildings whose interest is in their walls, and those whose interest is in the lines dividing their walls……Now, both these principles are admitted by Nature, the one in her woods and thickets, the other in her plains, and cliffs, and waters，but the latter is pre-eminently the principle of power, and, in some sense, of beauty also.Ⅷ
An architect should live as little in cities as a painter. Send him to our hills, and let him study there what nature understands by a buttress, and what by a dome. There was something in the old power of architecture, which it had from the recluse more than from the citizen.ⅩⅩⅣ
美丽之灯 The Lamp of Beauty
The value of architecture depended on two distinct characters: the one, the impression it receives from human power; the other, the image it bears of the natural creation.Ⅰ
All most lovely forms and thoughts are directly taken from natural objects……I know this is a bold assumption，since forms are not beautiful because they are copied from nature.
I believe that we may reason from Frequency to Beauty…… I mean that limited and isolated frequency which is characteristic of all perfection; not mere multitude: as a rose is a common flower, but yet there are not so many roses on the tree as there are leaves.Ⅲ
As we looked to Nature for instruction respecting form, we look to her also to learn the management of color.ⅩⅩⅤ
生命之灯 The Lamp of Life
No inconsiderable part of the essential characters of Beauty depended on the expression of vital energy in organic things, or on the subjection to such energy, of things naturally passive and powerless.Ⅰ
记忆之灯 The Lamp of Memory
Architecture which are picturesque，whose decoration depends on the arrangement of points of shade rather than on purity of outline, do not suffer, but commonly gain in richness of effect when their details are partly worn away. Such styles, pre-eminently that of French Gothic, should always be adopted when the materials to be employed are liable to degradation, as brick, sandstone, or soft limestone.Styles in any degree dependent on purity of line, as the Italian Gothic, must be practised altogether in hard and undecomposing materials, granite serpentine, or crystalline marbles. There can be no doubt that the nature of the accessible materials influenced the formation of both styles; and it should still more authoritatively determine our choice of either.ⅩⅦ