40年前，齐格弗里德·吉迪翁(Siegfried Giedion)用空间、时间和建筑为学生们提供了一种新的、连贯的视角，来理解现代建筑的根源和本质。与此同时，布鲁诺·泽维(Bruno Zevi)的书也获得了成功，他学会了如何看待建筑，让初学者把建筑当成空间而不是物体来阅读。自从发生了什么事?
With Space, Time and Architecture Siegfried Giedion offered the students of forty years ago a new and coherent vision of what constitutes the roots and essence of modern architecture. At about the same time, Bruno Zevi was succeeding with his book, Learning how to see architecture in initiating the novice into reading architecture as space rather than objects. What happened since?
The upheaval caused by the revolution of the Modern Movement at the beginning of the century gave the coup de grace to the architectural treatises and the idea of ‘unchangeable and unquestionable principles’. Contemporary culture reacts; writings on art and architecture such as renditions, collections of key texts, manifestos and aphorisms, historical depth studies, practice surveys and monographs, proliferate, purposely avoiding the positivism of a treatise. A gigantic bank of knowledge from diverse sources is accumulating and, with this in mind, the attempt to embrace the whole of architecture in just one introductory book necessitates a limited selection and a certain modesty of scientific ambition in favour of a didactic aim.
Every day the teacher is faced with the need to lead students to discover the range and principal aspects of a discipline which organizes the place for human life for today and tomorrow. The manysided aspect of this discipline must therefore be presented with simplicity. This task is carried out in one way or another in all schools of architecture, but it is no longer written about. Consequently the argument varies from one teacher to another. The student starting out runs up against a diversity of concepts and language concerning the same basic principles of architecture.
In reality it is often more a difference of presentation than content. Some base their introductory talk on a critical and in-depth analysis of a few case studies. Others think it preferable to tackle the subject by a comparative study of typical elements (the column, wall, base, corner, parapet, window, door, staircase, square, street, etc.), and others choose more generic themes of composition, which is what we have opted for in this work. Whatever the methods of presentation chosen, what is important for the student is to be able to obtain a clear idea of the discipline, to discover a few basic facts, and to begin to build up references which will enable him to continue to learn.
This is the cultural context of this book. With the risk of inevitable omissions, the first part is built around the themes of geometry and environmental perception in order to give some grammatical references. These references organize the acquired knowledge of built form as such and as a design tool. Form is considered here sometimes with a certain degree of autonomy in relation to meaning. It is first of all ’empty of sense’ before taking on various meanings which are changing through time.
Our ‘textbook’ will seek, for example, to explain the phenomena of form which result in certain urban settings (Hydra, San Giminiano, Berne, etc.) being regarded as having a great formal coherence or, on the contrary, for what reasons the contemporary town is often perceived as chaotic. The same exercise can be undertaken for the disposition of openings in a façade. We shall also try to show why certain plans and spatial dispositions appear more balanced than others; due to which causes one building plays a role as an object and another as a stitch in the urban fabric; how architectural space can be defined with an economy of means, and what are the essential principles for establishing links between spaces; what are the spatial characteristics of certain geometries and how they can be manipulated, etc.
The dissection and classification of attributes of architectural form are not entirely safe procedures. They reflect neither the perception of the physical world, which is always seen in a subjective totality, nor the process of architectural design. In order to teach and learn we must, nevertheless, proceed by way of an analysis of the structures of the world of forms. The reader will quickly realize that this is not a treatise, a dictionary, or a book of architectural recipes, but rather an introduction to our discipline.
In the second part the author stateshis own position regarding the contemporary architectural scene from the angle of three selected themes: place, relationship between form and matter, and design as an instrument for acquiring knowledge.
The vision adopted places architecture between the world of physical realities and that of desire and the imaginary. Architecture cannot therefore be a science, but it uses sciences: the exact sciences for its stability and durability, its thermal and acoustic capabilities; social sciences for a better understanding of man’s relationship with place and time. The responsible architect checks the artistic and cultural intuitions expressed in his design by rational means. He acts, knowing enough about established scientific facts and experience. The attractive vision of an entirely rational, scientific architecture based on facts and stripped of all speculation, is, on the other hand, a trap; or in the words of Colin Rowe: If the laws of statics can be safely assumed to be established beyond dispute, the ‘laws’ of use and pleasure, of convenience and delight, have certainly not as yet been subjected to any Newtonian revolution; and, while it is not inconceivable that in the future they may be, until that time, any ideas as to the useful and the beautiful will rest as untestifiable hypotheses.
如果某些原则可能比预期的更短暂，那么它们的价值就会降低，但不会否定它。正如1753年 洛吉耶 在类似的情况下所说: 在我看来，在那些不是纯粹应用艺术的艺术中，仅仅实践是不够的。学会思考是最重要的。艺术家必须能够证明他所做的是正确的。为了达到这个目的，他需要原则来决定他的判断并为他的选择辩护，以至于他不能仅仅凭直觉说出什么是好或坏，而是作为一个知道美之路并能证明美的人来表达他的判断。
In architecture, as in life itself, science and art occupy positions of equal importance. Since we are dealing more particularly with form, what we call ‘principles’ is finally made up of observations and hypotheses on the most permanent components of architecture. Where scientific research has helped to reinforce certainties we shall make special mention of it. Elsewhere our approach will remain phenomenological and pragmatic. We shall try to establish our rules with a maximum of relevance. History, the body of ‘experience’, will therefore be of precious assistance.
If some of the principles might prove more ephemeral than expected, that will reduce their value but will not, however, negate it. As the Abbé Laugier said, in a similar context, in 1753: It seems to me that in the arts which are not purely applied arts, practice alone is not sufficient. It is above all important to learn to think. An artist must be able to justify what he does. To this end he needs principles which determine his judgements and justify his choices to the extent that he cannot merely say instinctively what is good or bad, but express his judgement as a man who knows the paths of Beauty and who can justify them.
In an age when the trends and ‘schools’ that we mentioned at the beginning are so numerous and rather ephemeral, it seems useful that a discussion on architecture should try to integrate, reveal and clarify what these trends have in common. This book is a collection of observations, research, experiences and ordered thoughts which seek to be of use to the architects’ reasoned critique of their own work and of the projects and designs of others.
The form of presentation which has been chosen for this work is that of an invitation to a guided tour of a small ‘imaginary museum’ compiled by the author, who will comment on his thematic collection. The pictures and text form an integral whole. The references will perhaps encourage readers to further their studies by consulting more specialized work s as curiosity or needs urge them to do so. The collection reveals preferences of the author: modern architectural movements of the first third of this century, Greek antiquity, Byzantium, the Renaissance and sometimes the Baroque.