建筑学研究:虚构的小博物馆 Imaginary Museum

40年前,齐格弗里德·吉迪翁(Siegfried Giedion)用空间、时间和建筑为学生们提供了一种新的、连贯的视角,来理解现代建筑的根源和本质。与此同时,布鲁诺·泽维(Bruno Zevi)的书也获得了成功,他学会了如何看待建筑,让初学者把建筑当成空间而不是物体来阅读。自从发生了什么事?

With Space, Time and Architecture Siegfried Giedion offered the students of forty years ago a new and coherent vision of what constitutes the roots and essence of modern architecture. At about the same time, Bruno Zevi was succeeding with his book, Learning how to see architecture in initiating the novice into reading architecture as space rather than objects. What happened since?

20世纪初的现代运动革命所引起的剧变给建筑学的论述和“不可改变和不容置疑的原则”的思想带来了致命的一击。当代文化反应;关于艺术和建筑的著作,如翻译、重要文本的收集、宣言和格言、历史深度研究、实践调查和专题论文,大量涌现,有意避免论文的实证主义。一个来自不同来源的巨大的知识银行正在积累,考虑到这一点,在一本介绍性的书中包含整个建筑的尝试需要有限的选择和一定的谦虚的科学雄心,以支持一个说教的目标。

The upheaval caused by the revolution of the Modern Movement at the beginning of the century gave the coup de grace to the architectural treatises and the idea of ‘unchangeable and unquestionable principles’. Contemporary culture reacts; writings on art and architecture such as renditions, collections of key texts, manifestos and aphorisms, historical depth studies, practice surveys and monographs, proliferate, purposely avoiding the positivism of a treatise. A gigantic bank of knowledge from diverse sources is accumulating and, with this in mind, the attempt to embrace the whole of architecture in just one introductory book necessitates a limited selection and a certain modesty of scientific ambition in favour of a didactic aim.

教师每天都要引导学生去发现一门学科的范围和主要方面,这门学科为今天和明天的人类生活提供场所。因此,这一学科的多方面必须以简单的方式呈现。这个任务以这样或那样的方式在所有的建筑学派中被执行,但它不再被写出来。因此,不同的老师观点也不同。学生在开始学习时,会遇到许多关于相同的建筑基本原则的不同概念和语言。

Every day the teacher is faced with the need to lead students to discover the range and principal aspects of a discipline which organizes the place for human life for today and tomorrow. The manysided aspect of this discipline must therefore be presented with simplicity. This task is carried out in one way or another in all schools of architecture, but it is no longer written about. Consequently the argument varies from one teacher to another. The student starting out runs up against a diversity of concepts and language concerning the same basic principles of architecture.

实际上,它更多的是表现形式的不同,而不是内容的不同。有些人的介绍性发言是基于对几个案例的批判性和深入分析。另一些人认为通过比较典型元素(柱、墙、底座、墙角、栏杆、窗、门、楼梯、广场、街道等)来处理主题更可取,而另一些人则选择了更一般的构图主题,这也是我们在这部作品中选择的。无论选择什么样的表达方式,对学生来说,最重要的是能够对学科有一个清晰的认识,发现一些基本的事实,并开始建立参考资料,使他能够继续学习。

In reality it is often more a difference of presentation than content. Some base their introductory talk on a critical and in-depth analysis of a few case studies. Others think it preferable to tackle the subject by a comparative study of typical elements (the column, wall, base, corner, parapet, window, door, staircase, square, street, etc.), and others choose more generic themes of composition, which is what we have opted for in this work. Whatever the methods of presentation chosen, what is important for the student is to be able to obtain a clear idea of the discipline, to discover a few basic facts, and to begin to build up references which will enable him to continue to learn.

入门:几何和环境感知

这就是这本书的文化背景。第一部分是围绕几何和环境感知的主题,为了提供一些语法参考,冒着不可避免的遗漏的风险。这些参考资料组织了作为设计工具的已获得的构建形式的知识。在这里,形式有时被认为在意义上具有一定程度的自主性。它首先是“没有意义的”,然后才有了各种意义,这些意义是随着时间而变化的。

This is the cultural context of this book. With the risk of inevitable omissions, the first part is built around the themes of geometry and environmental perception in order to give some grammatical references. These references organize the acquired knowledge of built form as such and as a design tool. Form is considered here sometimes with a certain degree of autonomy in relation to meaning. It is first of all ’empty of sense’ before taking on various meanings which are changing through time.

例如,我们的“教科书”将试图解释导致某些城市环境(Hydra、San Giminiano、Berne等)被认为具有极大的形式一致性的形式现象,或者相反,当代城镇因为什么原因经常被认为是混乱的。同样的方法也适用于立面开口的布置。我们还将试图说明为什么某些规划和空间配置似乎比其他规划和空间配置更平衡;因此,一个建筑作为一个物体,另一个作为城市结构的一针;如何用经济的方法定义建筑空间,以及在空间之间建立联系的基本原则是什么;某些几何图形的空间特征是什么以及如何操作它们,等等。

Our ‘textbook’ will seek, for example, to explain the phenomena of form which result in certain urban settings (Hydra, San Giminiano, Berne, etc.) being regarded as having a great formal coherence or, on the contrary, for what reasons the contemporary town is often perceived as chaotic. The same exercise can be undertaken for the disposition of openings in a façade. We shall also try to show why certain plans and spatial dispositions appear more balanced than others; due to which causes one building plays a role as an object and another as a stitch in the urban fabric; how architectural space can be defined with an economy of means, and what are the essential principles for establishing links between spaces; what are the spatial characteristics of certain geometries and how they can be manipulated, etc.

对建筑形式属性的剖析和分类并不是完全安全的过程。它们既不反映人们对物质世界的感知,也不反映建筑设计的过程。然而,为了教与学,我们必须通过分析形式世界的结构来进行。读者很快就会意识到,这不是一篇论文,不是一本字典,也不是一本建筑食谱,而是我们学科的入门。

The dissection and classification of attributes of architectural form are not entirely safe procedures. They reflect neither the perception of the physical world, which is always seen in a subjective totality, nor the process of architectural design. In order to teach and learn we must, nevertheless, proceed by way of an analysis of the structures of the world of forms. The reader will quickly realize that this is not a treatise, a dictionary, or a book of architectural recipes, but rather an introduction to our discipline.

场所、形式与物质、设计

在第二部分中,作者从三个选定的主题:地点、形式与物质的关系、作为获取知识的工具的设计,阐述了自己对当代建筑场景的看法。

In the second part the author stateshis own position regarding the contemporary architectural scene from the angle of three selected themes: place, relationship between form and matter, and design as an instrument for acquiring knowledge. 

该愿景将建筑置于物理现实世界和欲望与想象世界之间。因此,建筑不可能是一门科学,但它运用了科学:确切的科学在于它的稳定性和耐久性,它的热和声学能力;为了更好地理解人类与地点和时间的关系的社会科学。负责任的建筑师以理性的方式检查设计中所表现出来的艺术和文化直觉。他采取行动,充分了解既定的科学事实和经验。另一方面,一个完全理性的、科学的、以事实为基础的、不带任何猜测的建筑诱人愿景是一个陷阱。或者用科林·罗的话来说: 如果静力学定律可以被安全地假定为是毫无争议地建立起来的,那么关于使用和快乐、方便和愉悦的“定律”当然还没有经受过牛顿的革命。而且,虽然在未来它们可能会是不可想象的,但在那之前,任何关于有用和美丽的想法都将作为无法证实的假设而存在。

The vision adopted places architecture between the world of physical realities and that of desire and the imaginary. Architecture cannot therefore be a science, but it uses sciences: the exact sciences for its stability and durability, its thermal and acoustic capabilities; social sciences for a better understanding of man’s relationship with place and time. The responsible architect checks the artistic and cultural intuitions expressed in his design by rational means. He acts, knowing enough about established scientific facts and experience. The attractive vision of an entirely rational, scientific architecture based on facts and stripped of all speculation, is, on the other hand, a trap; or in the words of Colin Rowe: If the laws of statics can be safely assumed to be established beyond dispute, the ‘laws’ of use and pleasure, of convenience and delight, have certainly not as yet been subjected to any Newtonian revolution; and, while it is not inconceivable that in the future they may be, until that time, any ideas as to the useful and the beautiful will rest as untestifiable hypotheses.

在建筑中,正如在生活中一样,科学和艺术占有同等重要的地位。由于我们更注重形式,我们所谓的“原则”最终是由对建筑最持久的组成部分的观察和假设构成的。在科学研究有助于加强确定性的地方,我们将特别提到它。在其他地方,我们的方法将保持现象学和实用主义。我们将尽量使我们的规则具有最大的相关性。因此,作为“经验”主体的历史将提供宝贵的帮助。

如果某些原则可能比预期的更短暂,那么它们的价值就会降低,但不会否定它。正如1753年 洛吉耶 在类似的情况下所说: 在我看来,在那些不是纯粹应用艺术的艺术中,仅仅实践是不够的。学会思考是最重要的。艺术家必须能够证明他所做的是正确的。为了达到这个目的,他需要原则来决定他的判断并为他的选择辩护,以至于他不能仅仅凭直觉说出什么是好或坏,而是作为一个知道美之路并能证明美的人来表达他的判断。

In architecture, as in life itself, science and art occupy positions of equal importance. Since we are dealing more particularly with form, what we call ‘principles’ is finally made up of observations and hypotheses on the most permanent components of architecture. Where scientific research has helped to reinforce certainties we shall make special mention of it. Elsewhere our approach will remain phenomenological and pragmatic. We shall try to establish our rules with a maximum of relevance. History, the body of ‘experience’, will therefore be of precious assistance.

If some of the principles might prove more ephemeral than expected, that will reduce their value but will not, however, negate it. As the Abbé Laugier said, in a similar context, in 1753: It seems to me that in the arts which are not purely applied arts, practice alone is not sufficient. It is above all important to learn to think. An artist must be able to justify what he does. To this end he needs principles which determine his judgements and justify his choices to the extent that he cannot merely say instinctively what is good or bad, but express his judgement as a man who knows the paths of Beauty and who can justify them.

虚构的小博物馆

在我们一开始提到的趋势和“学派”是如此之多且短暂的时代,关于建筑的讨论应该尝试整合、揭示和阐明这些趋势的共同之处,这似乎是有益的。这本书是一个观察,研究,经验和有序的思想的集合,寻求对建筑师合理的批评自己的工作和其他的项目和设计的使用。

In an age when the trends and ‘schools’ that we mentioned at the beginning are so numerous and rather ephemeral, it seems useful that a discussion on architecture should try to integrate, reveal and clarify what these trends have in common. This book is a collection of observations, research, experiences and ordered thoughts which seek to be of use to the architects’ reasoned critique of their own work and of the projects and designs of others.

本书选择的展示形式是邀请读者参观一个由作者编辑的“虚构的小博物馆”,作者将对他的主题收藏发表评论。图片和文字是一个整体。参考文献可能会鼓励读者通过咨询更专业的资料来进一步研究,因为好奇心或需要促使他们这样做。这些收藏揭示了作者的偏好:本世纪前三分之一的现代建筑运动、希腊古代、拜占庭、文艺复兴,有时还有巴洛克。

The form of presentation which has been chosen for this work is that of an invitation to a guided tour of a small ‘imaginary museum’ compiled by the author, who will comment on his thematic collection. The pictures and text form an integral whole. The references will perhaps encourage readers to further their studies by consulting more specialized work s as curiosity or needs urge them to do so. The collection reveals preferences of the author: modern architectural movements of the first third of this century, Greek antiquity, Byzantium, the Renaissance and sometimes the Baroque.

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