建筑学与视觉法则

在设计过程中,哪些视觉法则对建筑师有帮助?有些规律是生理性质的,如眼睛的立体测量、视网膜的敏感度、虹膜对光线的适应、视角和精度等。它们很重要,但我们不会在这里讨论它们,因为大量关于生理学和建筑学、照明工程或技术设计的著作已经很容易获得。

What are the visual laws which will help the architect in the design process? Some of the laws are of a physiological nature, such as ocular stereometry, sensitivity of the retina, adaptation of the iris to the level of lighting, angle and precision of view, etc. They are important, but we will not tackle them here, because numerous works on physiology and architecture, lighting engineering or technical design are already easily accessible.

感知心理学-格式塔心理学

其他的法则源于感知心理学,尤其是“格式塔”理论(形式理论)。它们之所以引起我们的兴趣,是因为它们经常冲击偏好的概念,而偏好的概念可以为美学理论提供有用的元素。这本书的第一部分提到了这一点。在“秩序与无序”、“织物与物体”和“空间”等章节中很容易辨认。

Other laws originated from the psychology of perception and more especially from ‘Gestalt’ theories (the theory of form).  They are of interest to us because they frequently impinge on the notion of preferences, which can provide useful elements for an aesthetic theory. The first part of this book refers to this. It will be easily recognizable in the chapters ‘Order and Disorder’, ‘Fabric and Object’ and ‘Space’. 

第三组理论集中于利用知觉的心理活动。我们正在思考认识论、信息论、遗传学、人类学等,这些将以一种更概括的方式出现,特别是在“地点”一章。目前让我们感兴趣的是,感知心理学的一些原则可以应用于建筑和图形艺术,因为它们起源于视觉的经验实验,而不是投机。

The third group of theories concentrates on the mental activity which draws on perception. We are thinking of epistemology, information theory, genetics, anthropology, etc., which will appear in a more generalized manner, particularly in the chapter on ‘place’. What interests us for the moment is that some principles of the psychology of perception can be applied to architecture and to the graphic arts, since they originated from empirical experiments on vision, instead of being speculative.

鲁道夫·阿恩海姆和恩斯特·格姆布里希将格式塔心理学扩展到了艺术领域。布鲁诺·泽维(Bruno Zevi)在他的《教与学如何看待建筑》(‘classic’ on teaching, Learning how to see architecture)一书中,以一种相关的、说教的方式运用了其中的一些原则。二十多年前,克里斯蒂安·诺伯格-舒尔茨(Christian Norberg-Schulz)首次尝试提出一种建筑形式理论,该理论至少部分地基于感知原理。

Rudolf Arnheim and Ernst Gombrich have helped to extend Gestalt psychology to art. Bruno Zevi has used some of its principles in a relevant and didactic way in his ‘classic’ on teaching, Learning how to see architecture. Christian Norberg-Schulz, more than twenty years ago, made a first attempt at proposing a theory of architectural form which would be based, at least partially, on the principles of perception. 

诺伯格-舒尔茨 随后脱离了从视觉感知的角度解释建筑现象的本质。然而,不可否认的是,没有眼睛,一个人对物理环境的体验是非常不同的。许多关于盲人感知的研究都证明了这一点。

Norberg-Schulz subsequently disassociated himself from an explanation of the nature of the architectural phenomenon from the point of view of visual perception. However, it cannot be denied that, without eyes, one’s experience of the physical environment is quite different. Numerous works on the perception of the blind exist as evidence of this.

边缘与轮廓

一个形象在很大程度上是通过它的边缘,它的轮廓,以及它与外部世界的联系来找到它的自主性的。在古典建筑中,基础、角落和檐口的突出并不是偶然的。这就好像信息和兴奋在边缘比在其他点有更大的集中。背景也可以由图形本身组成,但它们扮演次要角色。

A figure finds its autonomy to a large extent by its edges, its contours, therefore by the contact it has with its exterior, the rest of the world. It is not accidental if in classical architecture the base, corners and cornice are accentuated. It is as if there were a greater concentration of information and excitation at the edge than at other points. The background can also consist of figures itself, but they play a secondary role. 

图底关系

有一些规则支配着数字的合适性;这是一个形式特征的问题,这些形式特征使它们相对于视野中的其他形式占主导地位。当形状比较凸出、小而封闭时(如月亮、窗户等)。当它与另一方面似乎无限延伸的地面形成对比时,它就会变成一个图形。基本几何形式的存在使这种趋向于独立图形的趋势(例如圆形、螺旋形、棱柱形等)。然而,当我们熟悉一个弱定义的图形时,它就会变得非常合适。

There are rules which govern the good fit of figures; it is a question of the formal characteristics which tend to make them dominant in relation to other forms in the visual field. When the shape is relatively convex, small and closed (for example the moon, a window, etc. Figure 13 ) and when it contrasts with a ground which, on the other hand, seems to extend indefinitely, it tends to become a figure. The presence of elementary geometric form rein- forces this tendency towards an autonomous figure (for example circle, spiral, prism, etc). A weakly defined figure can, however, become a good fit when we are familiar with it. 

自治和正式身份不能混淆。身份可以来自它的轮廓,也可以来自它的表面或体积中可以识别的相关信息(例如,有鼻子、嘴、眼睛的人脸;玫瑰的花瓣;有门洞、扶壁和塔楼的大教堂)。我们稍后会回到这个不那么无辜的眼睛。

Autonomy and formal identity must not be confused. Identity can come from its outline, but just as much from associated information that can be discerned on its surface or in its volume (for example the human face with nose, mouth, eyes; the rose with its petals; the cathedral with its doorway, buttresses and turrets). We shall come back later on to this not-so-innocent eye.

 圣索菲亚大教堂 Hagia Sophia
圣索菲亚大教堂 Hagia Sophia

图底关系的互补性质可以被建筑师用作图形工具,以获得更清晰的空间形式的概念。当我们画一个平面,我们表达具体墙壁和对象,我们画出围绕空间的东西,而不是空间本身。 如果我们想更好地感知空间本身的形式,我们必须将空间体积转换成图形。这可以通过绘制表面来实现,而不是绘制定义它们的墙壁。这将是一个处理消极事物的问题。但是,仅仅提出一个消极的平面是不够的,因为人们会再次读到白线之前是黑色的。这是由于定律要求有一个相对于图形“无限”背景。同样的技术可以通过根据空间的围合程度使用黑色和灰色阴影,或者通过反射天花板的浮雕来更加巧妙地应用。

It is an area where the complementary nature of the relationship between figure and ground can be used as a graphic tool by architects in order to get a clearer idea of the form of spaces. When we draw a plan, we give concrete expression to the walls and objects; we draw what surrounds the space rather than the space itself . If we wanted to perceive better the form of the spaces themselves, we would have to transform the volume into a figure. That can be done by drawing the surfaces rather than the walls which define them. It would then be a question of a sort of working with the negative. But it is not sufficient simply to present a negative plan, because one would again read the white lines which were black before. That is due to the law which requires a ground to have an ‘infinite’ field relative to the figure . This same technique can be applied with more subtlety by using shades of black and grey according to the degree of enclosures of a space (explicit or implicit), or by reflecting the relief of the ceiling for example.

阿恩海姆建议建筑师应该用产生能量场的物体来取代图底的概念。然后,这个空间将由矢量或“磁场”来描述,并由距离、扩张和收缩来修正。因此,他对Paolo Portoghesi的工作很感兴趣,他的“网格”更像是墙壁产生的波纹,而不是抽象的组织系统。当我们讨论物体组织时,图底关系将非常有用。

Arnheim suggests that architects should replace the notion of figure/ ground by that of objects producing a field of energies. The space would then be described by vectors or ‘magnetic fields’ modified by distances, expansions and contractions. He thus is interested in the work of Paolo Portoghesi whose ‘grids’ bear a greater resemblance to ripples produced by the walls than to a system of abstract organization. The notion of figure and its relationship with ground will be very useful elsewhere when we talk about fabric and object.

 Casa Papanice
Paolo Portoghesi, Vittorio Gigliotti
Via Giuseppe Marchi, 3, 00161 Roma, Italia, 1966-1970
Casa Papanice
Paolo Portoghesi, Vittorio Gigliotti
Via Giuseppe Marchi, 3, 00161 Roma, Italia, 1966-1970

虽然视觉法则经常对我们的图像产生强烈的作用,但我们不能忽视这样一个事实:我们的感知不仅是视觉“机械过程”的结果,而且是通过我们的记忆和智力过滤的结果。

Although these laws often act very forcefully on our images, we must not lose sight of the fact that our perceptions are not only the result of a ‘mechanical process’ of vision, but that they are filtered through our memory and intelligence.

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