建筑学︱观看与感知

深渊

看和感知是有区别的。勒·柯布西耶在比利时旅行时,看到了遍布全国的巨大金字塔,感到很惊讶。当他注意到那实际上是一堆矿渣时,他的热情就减退了……“我突然度量了一个事物外观和它所唤起的思想之间的深渊。”

There is a difference between seeing and perceiving. Le Corbusier, travelling in Belgium, was amazed by the enormous pyramids he saw through the country. When he noticed that, in fact, they were slagheaps of mining spoil, his enthusiasm waned ‘… suddenly I measure the abyss that can open up between the appearance of a thing and the quality of thought that it evokes’

记忆与感知

凝视包含了隐藏的经验、知识和期望。知觉不是中性的,我们不断地将我们所看到的与我们之前所遇到和吸收的情况进行比较。这就是为什么知觉的科学观察是不可靠的,“格式塔”法则是不完整的。

当我们只感知到一个片段,或者当这个充满意义的图形变得模糊时,这也是正确的。我们看到的不是我们看到的,而是我们期望发现的。我们需要这些期望,因为我们的记忆作用于我们的感知,并影响我们的判断,超越“客观的”事实。

The gaze holds hidden experiences, knowledge and expectations. Perception is not neutral; we continually compare what we see with situations that we have previously met and assimilated. This is what makes the scientific observations of perception precarious and ‘Gestalt’ laws incomplete.

That holds true as well when we only perceive a fragment or when this figure charged with meaning is blurred. We do not see what we see but what we expect to find. We need these expectations because our memory acts on our perceptions and influences our judgements beyond ‘objective’ truths. 

看的方式

在X光片,我们只能看到由黑暗和光亮区组成的图像。建筑学的学生学习有意识地感知风景、城镇和建筑物的外观。他在观察和识别环境中的符号方面发展出一种才能,使他能够更敏锐地分辨,判断秩序与混乱,比例与不平衡,平衡与不平衡,同质与等级,稳固与脆弱,重要的形式与偶然的或无意义的形式。

参观柯布西耶的萨沃伊别墅或赖特的流水别墅,他将评估这些作品的方法和细节,正是这些方法和细节造就了这些作品的非凡丰富性,对他而言,这些作品比普通人更容易理解。

X-ray where we see only a general image composed of dark and light areas. A student of architecture learns to perceive consciously the appearance of landscapes, towns and buildings. He develops an aptitude for seeing and recognizing signs in the environment which enable him to distinguish more sharply, to judge between order and disorder, proportion and disproportion, balance and imbalance, homogeneity and hierarchy, solidity and fragility, significant forms and forms that are accidental or devoid of meaning.

Visiting Le Corbusier’s Villa Savoie or Frank Lloyd Wright’s Kaufmann house (Falling Water), he will assess the methods and details which have contributed to the exceptional richness of these works which take on more easily for him than for the layman, a figure-character.

不可见的东西

此外,建筑师不能局限于通过其可见的包围平面来观察建筑物。他看到了不可见的东西,他的视觉预见了他能够做出的关于内部组织,厚度,结构,空间以及其他一切的假设。

由于能够直接看到很少有人察觉到的东西,建筑师承担着巨大的责任。我们可以建造别人看不到的东西,我们可以建造让人震惊的东西,或者让人愉悦的东西。我们可以推测,总有一天,公众会发现我们的意图,至少有一部分是通过将其纳入记忆。无论发生什么,通过他的方案,建筑师扮演了一个公共角色。他的“说教”角色可以帮助其他人更敏锐地感知和享受建筑环境。

Moreover, the architect cannot limit himself to seeing buildings by means of their visible enveloping planes. He sees the invisible, his vision anticipates the hypotheses that he will be able to make on the interior organization, thickness, structure, space and all that follows.

Being capable of seeing what few others perceive straight away, the architect bears a great responsibility. We can build what others are hardly capable of seeing, we can erect something that shocks or something that pleases. We can speculate on the fact that one day the public will discover at least part of our intentions by incorporating them it its memory. Whatever happens, through his schemes the architect plays a public role. His ‘didactic’ role can help others to perceive and enjoy the built environment with greater subtlety.

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