建筑几何学︱追求简单还是制造混沌?

争论

规则的几何顺序有时名声不好。人们抱怨千篇一律、死板、单调、不人道。在《Diadalos杂志》上发表的一篇文章,主题是“秩序与无序”。乌尔里希·康拉德对秩序宣战,他说:……如果到目前为止,无序一直对建筑有害——反之亦然——那么它现在就成了一种兴奋剂。此外,建筑可以从那些我们认为是生命本身结构的无序的特殊特征中获得新的承诺和力量,而在大多数情况下,这些特征是不能被带入直线和对称的。网络和迷宫将是适当的描述这种建筑无序。我们记得,我们已经确定这些建筑结构是真正适合居住的

Regular geometric order sometimes has a bad reputation. One complains about uniformity, rigidity, monotony, inhumanity. In a contribution to the journal of Diadalos, devoted to the theme ‘order and disorder’. Ulrich Conrads declares war on order by saying: … If, up to now, disorder has been inimical to architecture – and vice versa – it now acts as a stimulant. And, furthermore, architecture might draw renewed commitment and strength from those special features of disorder which we recognize as the structure of life itself and which, in most cases, cannot be brought into line and into symmetry. Networks and labyrinths would be the appropriate descriptions of this kind of architecture from disorder. And we recall that we have already identified these same architectural structures as the truly habitable ones.

这篇论文所基于的概念是,人的生命和自然的组织远比一个规则的,几何的秩序复杂,这意味着一个城镇或建筑应该是这种复杂性的一个更直接的反映。然而,这一论点忽略了三个主要问题。

This thesis is based on the concept that the life of man and the organization of nature are much more complex than a regular, geometrical order, implying that a town or building should be a more immediate reflection of this complexity. The argument nevertheless ignores three major issues.

首先,为了在这个世界上找到自己的定位,我们需要在精神上和视觉上简化这个世界的复杂性,以获得我们可以记忆的图像。如果没有几乎完全相同的叶子的重复,按照树枝的结构排列,我们就不可能记住树是一个实体。我们需要能够连接在一起的部分在更大和更简单的单位,而不需要破译的细节。同样的原则也适用于城镇、社区、广场、街道、建筑物及其窗户。

First of all, to orientate ourselves in this world, we need to simplify its complexity mentally and visually to obtain images that we can commit to memory. Without the repetition of leaves that are practically identical, ordered according to the structure of the branches, it would not be possible for us to remember the tree as an entity. We need to be able to join the parts together in larger and simpler units, without having to decipher the detail. The same principle is valid for the town, its neighbourhoods, squares, streets, its buildings and their windows.

那么,让我们记住,为了从大量的建设性因素中进行合理的建设,一定程度的规律性是技术上的必要性。

Let us remember, then, that in order to build rationally from a large number of constructive elements, a certain degree of regularity is a technical necessity. 

最后,建筑也是一种思维活动,它常常试图超越对自然或社会事实的模仿。简单的几何图形和图案尤其适用于它。生命是复杂的,但包含生命的形式是有规律的(如在生态系统中,植物的生长过程和生命等)。尊重社会的复杂性,同时利用它的规律性,在智力上是值得的。

And finally, building is also an activity of the mind which will often try to surpass imitation of nature or social fact. Simple geometric figures and patterns lend themselves to it particularly well. Life is complex, but the form which contains life is regular (as in ecosystems, the processes of growth and the life of plants, etc.). To manage to respect the complexity of society, while at the same time making use of regularity, is intellectually rewarding.

但是什么类型和程度的规律性呢?什么规模的?如果一个城镇是完全的方形或圆形,它是否会铭刻在我们的记忆中,这是不确定的。几何抽象的程度仍然是每个文化以自己的方式回答的问题。这或多或少是理性主义和风景如画的争论发生的基础。

But what kind and what degree of regularity? On what scale? There is no certainty that a town will imprint itself on our memory if it is perfectly square or circular. The degree of geometric abstraction remains a question which each culture answers in its own manner. This is more or less the ground on which the quarrel between rationalism and the picturesque takes place.

简单与规则

具有简单几何轮廓的线条、表面和体块,对我们来说就像拟人化的形式一样,具有包容复杂现实的力量,甚至可以升华它,而不受大量细节变化的干扰。当复杂的结构在某些时候或从某些角度融入简单的时候,我们会享受到一种满足、一种平静和一种赞美。曼哈顿-复杂的,尽管其简单的网格计划-从远处看在黄昏时,或在薄雾,变成一个剪影。最后,圣洛伦索只是一个普通的长方形。

Lines, surfaces and volumes with simple geometric outlines have for us – as much as anthropomorphic forms – the power to subsume a complex reality, indeed even to sublimate it, without the distraction of an abundance of variations of detail. We enjoy a moment of satisfaction, of peace and admiration, when at certain times or from certain angles complex structures blend into simplicity. Manhattan – complex in spite of its simple grid plan – resolves itself when seen from afar at nightfall, or in the mist, into a silhouette. San Lorenzo, finally, is nothing but a ‘common’ rectangle.

规律是无处不在的。我们的心跳、呼吸频率、水龙头滴水、时钟、昼夜、季节的节奏……我们无法逃避。只有当脉冲发生变化时,我们才测量它,因为此时连续性处于危险之中。规律就在我们的内心。隐藏的节奏调节着我们的生活。

Regularity is omnipresent. Our heartbeats, rate of breathing, drips from a tap, a clock, days and nights, the rhythm of the seasons … we cannot escape it. It is only when the pulse changes that we measure it because continuity is then at risk. Regularity is within us. Hidden rhythms regulate our life.

在伴随的节奏和主导的重复之间,在秩序和单调之间的分界线在哪里?这是一个有许多因素起作用的欣赏问题:地点、规模、视野、对象的意义、习惯等。似乎在大规模的分组中,以节奏为主导,没有什么层次或分组成更大的单元,实际上有单调的风险。我们的椅子、散热器、脸盆、门把手、螺母和螺栓等工业产品的大规模生产,其规律性本身不会造成任何单调的问题。事实上,必须对他们的情况和背景提出疑问。如果这座城市是机械地建造出来的,而不考虑它的位置和用途,那么它将不再是一个井然有序的城市,而是一个示意图。

Where is the dividing line between an accompanying rhythm and a dominant repetition, between order and monotony? It is a question of appreciation in which many factors come into play: place, scale, field of vision, significance of the object, habit, etc. It seems that in largescale groupings, in which rhythm predominates, and where there is little hierarchy or grouping into larger units, there is, in fact, a risk of monotony. The regularity of mass production of industrial objects – our chairs, radiators, wash-basins, door handles, nuts and bolts – does not cause any problems of monotony in itself. It is their situation and their context which must, in fact, be questioned. The town, if it were produced as mechanically, without regard for place and use, would no longer be orderly, but schematic.

规则的例外

良好的规律性本身就是异常的背景,异常随后将占据主导地位(图72)。我们最近的警告仍然有效:有意义的例外比完全的正式游戏更好。门把手是一个例外的规律性的门,门立面是一个例外,喷泉或法院的小镇,修道院下乡(第5章)。在Priene正则网格布局,古代的殖民小镇,异常的状态留给集会,圣所和剧院(图73)。历史在都灵严格的罗马网格规划中创造了一些例外,简单地通过改变街道和广场的宽度来表明最重要的建筑的特殊位置,而不扰乱模式。为了成为一个例外,像45度旋转建筑这样的“杂技”是不必要的。

Well-established regularity offers itself as a background to exceptions which will then assume a dominant importance (Figure 72). Our recent warning remains valid: an exception with meaning is better than an exclusively formal game. The door handle is an exception in the regularity of the door, the door is an exception to the façade, the fountain or the law courts to the town, the monastery to the countryside (Chapter 5). In the regular grid layout of Priene, a colonial town of antiquity, the status of exception is reserved for the agora, the sanctuary and the theatre (Figure 73). History has created exceptions in the strict Roman grid plan of the city of Turin simply by varying the width of streets and squares which indicate special places for the most important buildings, without disturbing the pattern. In order to become an exception, ‘acrobatics’ such as turning a building at 45 degrees are unnecessary.

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