知觉现象与建筑

注意:对于一个拥有所有感官的人来说,建筑的体验主要是视觉上的和动觉上的(使用身体各部分的运动感觉)。这本书的主要部分就是关于这一点的。这并不意味着你可以失聪,对嗅觉和触觉不敏感。那将是否定自己的丰满的感觉。有时,这不是一个失败的一个点被认为是次要的,破坏了所有的视觉品质?对环境的审美体验是我们所有感官的事情,甚至在某些情况下,听觉、嗅觉和触觉比视觉更重要;他们的经历异常强烈。作为设计师,我们永远不能忘记这一点!让我们试着想象我们正在设计的空间的回音,材料或活动所散发出的气味,它们所唤起的触觉体验。让下面的五个“图像”作为提示。

Be warned: for a person who has the use of all his senses, the experience of architecture is primarily visual and kinaesthetic (using the sense of movement of the parts of the body). The main part of the book is devoted to this. That does not mean that you are allowed to be deaf and insensitive to smell and touch. That would be to deny oneself the fullness of sensations. Isn’t it sometimes a failure on a single one of these points which are deemed to be of secondary importance which destroys all visual qualities? Aesthetic experiencing of the environment is a matter of all our senses and there are even some situations where hearing, smell and tactility are more important than vision; they are experienced with extraordinary intensity. As designers we must never forget that! Let us try to imagine the echo in the spaces that we are designing, the smells that will be given off by the materials or the activities that will take place there, the tactile experience that they will arouse. Let the five ‘images’ which follow serve as a reminder 

听觉与建筑

听力不仅涉及娱乐领域,而且其需求众所周知;它还可以用于街道的铺设,楼梯的材料,天花板和工作场所的地板,等等。一个学校的教室,无论多么大,布置得多么好,灯光多么亮,空间构成多么好,如果因为材料或高度的原因,回声超过了一定的限度,就会成为一个痛苦的地方。一座在声音上“死亡”的教堂失去了它的宗教性质。通往一所房子的砾石小路宣告着来访者的脚步,然而如果铺上沥青(为了整洁),它就不再传达信息了。如果我们有时闭上眼睛,以消除视觉世界的主导地位,以便更专注地倾听,那就真正证明了听觉体验的纯粹乐趣。想想脚步声吧!

Hearing is not only involved in areas of entertainment where its demands are well known; it also has a role to play in the paving of streets, in the materials for staircases, in the ceilings and floors for a work place, etc. A school classroom, however large, well laid-out, well lit, or of splendid spatial composition, becomes a place of suffering if echoing exceeds certain limits, whether caused by the materials or by excessive height. An acoustically ‘dead’ church loses its religious character. A gravel path leading to a house announces the visitor’s steps, whereas if it is asphalted (for the purpose of tidiness) it no longer delivers its message. If sometimes we close our eyes to remove the dominance of the visual world in order to listen more intently, that is real proof of the sheer pleasure of auditory experience. Think of the sound of a footstep!

嗅觉与建筑

气味,香水的花园,木头的气味,混凝土,气味的烹饪,烟尘的味道,蒸汽从洗衣店,香在教堂,谷仓的干燥,灰尘,,潮湿的气味的酒窖(我们甚至经验的雕刻彩绘大师)——小标识的地方和时刻一辈子。也许正是这些相对罕见的经历使他们更加坚强。我们可以找出它们的精确和细节,我们可以在我们的整个生活中回忆它们;祖母家的味道在我们的记忆中如此根深蒂固,以至于20年后在一个完全不同的环境中再次遇到它,这个简单的事实就足以让我们以惊人的精度回忆起这座老房子的情景。

Smell – perfumes of gardens, the smells of wood, of concrete, smells of cooking, the smell of soot, steam from laundries, incense in church, the dryness of granaries, dust, damp smells of cellars (which we experience even in the engravings of Piranesi) – small identifies places and moments for a lifetime. Perhaps it is the relative rarity of these experiences which makes them all the stronger. We can pick out their preciseness and detail and we can recall them throughout the whole of our lives; the smell of grandmother’s house can be so firmly rooted in our memory that the simple fact of encountering it again in a completely different context twenty years later is sufficient to conjure up images of the old house with amazing precision.

触觉与建筑

触觉在建筑中占有特殊的地位,一方面是由于重力的原因,它是不可避免的,另一方面是由于我们看到形式和纹理的能力。一个人的站立或行走都与地面有永久的触觉接触——光滑或粗糙,坚硬或柔软,平坦或倾斜。当允许我们选择的时候,往往是最方便的选择获胜。和我们的手吗?众所周知,仅仅观看展出的漂亮物品是不够的:我们想要触摸它们,检查它们的重量、表面的质地和它的形状。光滑的垂直元素,雕塑,瓷砖,柱子等,邀请我们抚摸它们。

和臀部?他们也会被某些正式的台阶、基座、长椅和座位的布局所吸引,眼睛有时也会提前检查,判断他们的性感。和皮肤?冷、热、不舒服或清爽的风、空气的充塞或新鲜,这些都是建筑设计需要考虑的问题。学习弗兰克·劳埃德·赖特吧!

Tactility occupies a special place in architecture for two reasons: on one hand it is inevitable because of gravity, and on the other it is anticipated by our ability to see forms and textures. A person’s standing or walking are in permanent tactile contact with the ground – smooth or rough, hard or soft, flat or sloping. When we are permitted to choose, it is often that which is most convenient which triumphs. And our hands? It is well known that it is not enough just to look at beautiful objects on display: we want to touch them, examine the weight and the textural quality of the surface and its form. Smooth vertical elements, sculptures, tiles, columns etc., invite us to caress them.

And the buttocks? They too feel drawn by certain formal layouts of steps, plinths, benches and seats, the eye and sometimes the hand making a prior examination, judging their sensuality. And the skin? Cold, hot, unpleasant or refreshing draughts, stuffiness or freshness of the air offer just as many concerns for architectural design. Study Frank Lloyd Wright!

运动与建筑

身体的运动,如果它本身不是我们的五感之一,然而,为我们提供了衡量事物和空间的尺度。穿过,参观、舞蹈动作——所有让我们欣赏壮丽和探索隐藏的:走得更近,搬家,去,去,去,去,逃跑,都是行动,邀请我们自己组织我们想看到的,听到的,感觉,嗅觉和触觉在给定的环境中。建筑只是绘画或照片中的形象。一旦建成,它就变成了一个场景,有时是来来去去,手势,甚至一连串感觉的场景。

The movement of the body, if it is not itself one of our five senses, provides us, nevertheless, with a measure for things and space. Passing through, visiting, dancing, gesture – all allow us to appreciate the splendour and exploration of that which is hidden: to move closer, move away, go round, go up, go down, go into, escape, are all actions which invite us to organize for ourselves what we want to see, hear, feel, smell and touch in a given environment. Architecture is image only in a drawing or photograph. As soon as it is built it becomes the scene and sometimes the scenario of comings and goings, of gestures, even of a succession of sensations.

知觉现象

听觉(听)、嗅觉(香)、触觉(抚),如视觉、动觉等,不仅是简单的生理功能,而且是可以学习的技能。耳朵、鼻子和皮肤并不比我们的眼睛更“无辜”。我们的智力,我们学习和记忆的能力把它们变成了与我们的经验、文化和时代相联系的感知装置。十九世纪的气味、噪音和曲调在二十世纪是不一样的。

The sense of hearing (listening), smell (perfume) and the tactile sensation (caress), like vision and the kinaesthetic sense, are not only simple physiological functions, but also skills that can be learnt. The ear, the nose and the skin are no more ‘innocent’ than our eyes. Our intellectual faculties, out capacity to learn and to memorize turn them into sensing devices linked to our own experience, our culture and our time. The smells, noises and tunes of the nineteenth century are not experienced in the same way in the twentieth.

让我们通过重复个感觉几乎从不孤立地行动来结束这简短的唤醒;它们相互帮助,相互混合,有时相互矛盾,或者用米歇尔·塞雷斯特别有关的话来结束: 。。没有人闻过这种气味,只闻过一朵玫瑰特有的香味。也许是听觉,毫无疑问是舌头在练习这种隔离或选择性。人体气味的玫瑰和一千气味的同时它触动羊毛,看着不同的风景,在声波震动,同时拒绝这洪水的感觉为了花时间想象,缪斯心不在焉地或进入狂喜,工作积极或十不同的方式解释它的状态没有停止经验。

Let us conclude this brief evocation of the senses by repeating that they almost never act in isolation; they help each other, mix with each other and sometimes contradict each other, or, to conclude with the particularly relevant words of Michel Serres: . . nobody h a s ever smelt and only smelt the unique perfume of one rose. Hearing perhaps, the tongue without doubt, practises this isolation or selectiveness. The body smells a rose and a thousand smells around it at the same time as it touches wool, looks at a varied landscape, trembles at sound waves, at the same time as it rejects this flood of sensations in order to take time to imagine, muse abstractedly or go into ecstasy, work actively or interpret in ten different ways its state without ceasing to experience it.

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