建筑与秩序

什么是秩序?

我们在这里讨论的不是古典的“秩序”,也就是古代或16世纪-19世纪建筑范式。多立克、科林斯、爱奥尼亚、托斯卡纳的柱式,如果我们有时提到它们,我们感兴趣的不是它们作为文化符号的价值,而是它们的几何结构。基本的和永久的规则似乎控制着建筑形式元素的相互依赖。建筑物和城市群的结构总是或多或少有些条理。

什么是秩序?秩序只与无序和混乱有关才有意义。它本身没有价值,除了它的极限。完美的秩序和完全的混乱同样是长期难以忍受的情况。我们的建造介于两者之间。

We are not talking here about classical ‘order’ in the sense of a code for architectural composition in antiquity or from the sixteenth to the nineteenth centuries. The Doric, Corinthian, Ionic, Tuscan orders, if we sometimes refer to them, do not interest us for their value as a cultural code, but for the geometrical structure. Fundamental and permanent rules seem to govern the interdependence of the elements of architectural form. Buildings and urban groupings are always more or less structured.

What is this order? Order only has meaning in relation to disorder and chaos. It has no value in itself except at its limits. Perfect order and total chaos are equally difficult situations to bear for a long period. The works we construct are situated somewhere between the two.

自然:有序还是无序?

自然:有序还是无序?再说一次,什么是自然?野生原生态,因为它太广阔,不给人混乱的印象。周期、潮汐和波浪给人以可见的秩序。岩石、河流、植物或昆虫的结构可以被观察到。但是,综合起来,它们代表了一种秩序,这种秩序在我们所关心的视觉层面上是不可测量的。我们接受多样化。我们也钦佩它,然而人类传统上把可衡量的东西,城市,强加给了自然。

Nature: order or disorder? And then again, what nature? Wild untouched nature, because it is too vast, does not give an impression of chaos. Cycles, tides and waves give visible order. Rocks, rivers, plants or insects allow their structure to be observed. But, taken together, they represent an order which, at the visual level with which we are concerned, becomes unmeasurable. We accept the variety. We also admire it and yet man has traditionally imposed the measurable, the city, upon nature.

我们必须‘违背自然’地生活,因此我们通过秩序来建造。“为了使自然能被视为风景,它必须停止过于野性;因为作为一个旁观者,一个人不能感到威胁。自从被探索以来,世界变得更加美丽了。人类把自己控制的印记强加在地球、水和植物王国的最遥远的角落。他必须承担这种欲望所包含的巨大责任。

We have to live ‘against nature’ and therefore we build by ordering. ‘In order that nature can be considered as landscape, it must cease to be too wild; because to be a spectator, one must not feel threatened. The world is more beautiful since it has been explored’ (Hellpach). Man imposes the mark of his control on the earth, water and the vegetable kingdom to the furthest corners of the world. He must assume the enormous responsibility that such a desire involves.

建筑与秩序

为了建造我们必须使用相当简单的几何图形。它首先是设计的需要,最重要的是建造的需要。因此,设计和制定道路,建造房屋,把石头、模具或按砖和混凝土面板、构架,最后在一起,我们总是试图节约我们的努力通过使用重复的元素,可以组装。因此,规律性是建筑的本质。

To build we must use fairly simple geometry. It is first of all a necessity for design and above all for building. We have always sought to economize our efforts by using the repetition of elements that can be assembled. Regularity is thus the very essence of building.

相同元素和类似的建造方法的重复、排列和并置给我们的建筑和城镇带来了秩序。从建筑中产生的秩序最终教育了眼睛,影响了我们的美感。这种对规律性的追求,一旦被确立,就会通过超越建筑设计,在这种情况下,超越纯粹的建筑需求。秩序有它自己的自主权。这并不意味着一个人忽视了建造的要求,而是一个人附加了其他的标准。每个时期,在一定程度上,每个建筑师,建立了自己的道德标准,相对于允许的自治程度。

Repetition, alignment and juxtaposition of identical elements and similar methods of construction impose order on our buildings and our towns. The order which arises from construction finally educates the eye and influences our sense of the beautiful. This taste for regularity, once it has been established, acts on architectural design by transcending, on this occasion, purely constructional requirements. Order acquires its own autonomy. That does not mean that one ignores the demands of construction, but that one superimposes other criteria. Each period and, to a certain extent, each architect, establishes its or his own ethics relative to the degree of autonomy permitted.

我们对秩序的追求不仅仅是知道事物是如何被制造出来的,它们服务于什么目的或者它们代表着什么。物体也作用于我们的感觉,作为有自己内在的和几何逻辑的形式。

Our search for order is not simply that of knowing in what way things have been made, what purpose they serve or what they represent. Objects also act on our senses as forms having their own intrinsic and geometric logic.

秩序的感知与追求

前一章对知觉现象的讨论,使我们初步认识到规律性对于人是必要的。环境越复杂,我们就越需要简化和总结来理解和确定我们的方向。既然我们通过做类比来完善我们对环境的认识,我们就不希望从一天到另一天完全改变。我们需要使自己习惯于。贡布里希推翻了这一观点,他说:“习惯的力量来自于我们的秩序感。它来自于我们对改变的抵制和对连续性的追求。’正像平衡感是与生俱来的一样,是从内耳发展而来的,我们的秩序感似乎也可能很深。即使不是完全天生的,这种秩序感在幼儿时期就已经形成了。

The discussion of perceptive phenomena in the previous chapter gave a glimpse of the fact that regularity is necessary to man. The more complex the environment, the more we need to simplify and summarize to understand and get our bearings. Since we operate by making analogies to perfect our knowledge of the environment, we do not want order to change completely from one day to the next. We need to accustom ourselves. Gombrich reverses this idea by saying: ‘The power of habit comes from our sense of order. It comes from our resistance to change and from our search for continuity.’ Just as the sense of balance is innate, developing from the inner ear, it seems possible that our sense of order runs very deep. Even if it is not entirely innate, this sense of order has already developed by early childhood.

在这种天生的秩序感之上,是一个根据环境和文化而变化的学习过程,这有助于我们确定自己的方向。因此,永远不会只有一种秩序、一种尺度或一种理想的平衡。然而,我们可以通过心理学和建筑史的发现来阐明我们可以使用的主要方法。我们每天都在暗中与他们合作。我们仍然需要使他们更明确,以便能够教和发展批评。

On this innate sense of order is superimposed a learning process varying according to the environment and culture, which helps us to orientate ourselves. There will, therefore, never be just one order, one measure or one ideal balance. However we can, by taking discoveries of psychology and the history of architecture, clarify the principal means at our disposal. We work with them implicitly every day. We still need to make them more explicit in order to be able to teach and develop criticism.

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