设计笔记︱密克维以色列犹太教堂 Mikveh Israel Synagogue

路易斯康 Louis Kahn

窗户房间

这些空间由直径20英尺的窗户房间围成,由墙壁通道连接。这些窗户房间的元素有一个外侧面的玻璃开口和面向内部的更大的、没有玻璃的拱形开口。会堂周围有光的屋子,可以作妇女的行宫,也是妇女的丘坛。这些窗户房间在入口和对面教堂的组成中占主导地位。在社区建筑中,外部无屋顶的房间为室内提供了光线,这与达卡的设计理念是一致的。

The spaces are enclosed by window rooms 20-foot in diameter connected by walled passages. These window room elements have glazed openings on one exterior side and larger, unglazed arched openings facing the interior. These rooms of light surrounding the Synagogue chamber serve as an ambulatory and are the high places for women. These window rooms prevail in the composition of the entrance and the chapel across the way. In the community building light is given to the interior by exterior roofless rooms born out of the same idea which, incidentally, gave rise to the plan at Dacca.

密克维以色列犹太教堂 Mikveh Israel Synagogue
密克维以色列犹太教堂 Mikveh Israel Synagogue

外部的窗户不支撑建筑;正如你在平面图上看到的,支撑建筑的是窗户之间的空间。因为窗户的形状,它们永远不会成为支撑。我选择在窗户之间支撑屋顶,在柱子、梁和墙之间有一个清晰的定义。柱的意思是梁,墙的意思是大量的梁或平板。它们是不同的东西。

The windows on the outside do not support the building; what supports the building, as you can see on the plan, are the spaces between the windows. The windows could never be a support because of their shape. I chose to support the roof between the windows where a clear definition can be made between a column, a beam and a wall. A column means a beam, a wall says multitude of beams or a slab. They’re different things.

密克维以色列犹太教堂 剖面
密克维以色列犹太教堂 剖面

结构与光

没有自然光,一个空间永远无法达到它在建筑中的位置。人造光是夜晚的光通过定位的枝形吊灯表现出来的,无法与自然光变幻莫测的嬉戏相比……建筑处理空间。建筑空间是一种结构在空间本身就很明显的空间。长跨度是一种巨大的努力,不应该被它内部的分裂所消耗。建筑艺术有很好的空间范例,但没有欺骗。一堵分隔穹顶空间的墙会否定整个穹顶的精神。结构是在灯光下设计的。拱顶、穹顶、拱顶、柱等结构都与光的特性有关。自然光通过空间,通过光线在一天中的时间和一年中的季节的细微差别,在它进入和改变空间时,给人以心情。

A space can never reach its place in architecture without natural light. Artificial light is the light of night expressed in positioned chandeliers, not to be compared with the unpredictable play of natural light… Architecture deals with spaces. The architectural space is one where the structure is apparent in the space itself. A long span is a great effort that should not be dissipated by division within it. The art of architecture has wonderful examples of spaces, but without deception. A wall dividing a domed space would negate the entire spirit of the dome.the structure is design in light. The vault, the dome, the arch, the column are structures related to the character of light. Natural light gives mood by space, by the nuances of light in the time of day and seasons of the year as it enters and modifies the space.

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