光与空间 Light and space

光限定空间 Light-space

光空间是一种想象空间,当部分空间光线充足,而其余空间处于半暗或全暗状态时。这些极限是想象出来的,但完全可以感知。如果观察者位于照明区域之外,他将其视为“一个大盒子里的透明盒子”。被灯光照亮的小盒子吸引了他的注意力。如果他在一个小的被照亮的盒子里,在半黑暗的空间里就会出现一个不确定大小的空间,直到它消失的那一刻。

Light-space is an imaginary space which is created when a portion of space is well lit while the rest is left in semi- or total darkness . The limits are imaginary but perfectly perceptible. If the observer is situated outside the lit area, he sees it as ‘a transparent box within a large box’. The small illuminated box concentrates his attention. If he is within the small illuminated box, the space in the semi-darkness appears of indeterminate size to the point of ceasing to exist.

光空间在建筑设计中非常有用。它使得在剧院、马戏团、博物馆、夜间的商店橱窗、露天等地方展示场景成为可能。它还能使人在照明区域隔离自己和更好地集中精力,就像当我们的个人工作或阅读灯,我们在一个大的办公室或在家里,其余的空间逐渐消失。

The light-space is very useful in architectural design. It makes it possible to present scenes as in the theatre, the circus, the museum, a shop window at night, in the open air, etc. It also enables the person who is in the illuminated area to isolate himself and concentrate better, just as when, with our individual work- or reading-lamps, we are in a large office or at home and the rest of the space gradually vanishes.

由于电灯的出现,这样的空间可以在瞬间创造和改造,如果与空间布局的机械改造相比,花费很少。在白天,一束阳光通过一个开口射入一个相对黑暗的房间,也会产生类似的效果,但现在这个“小盒子”会随着太阳的轨迹移动。它的效果往往是一场奇妙的意外,而不是一个精心策划的意图。

Since the coming of electric light, such spaces can be created and transformed instantaneously and at little expense if compared with mechanical alterations of spatial lay-outs. In the daytime, a shaft of sunlight through an opening into a relatively dark room can have a similar effect, but now the ‘little box’ moves, following the sun’s course. Its effect is more often a marvellous accident than a calculated intention.

光作为物体 Light as an object

光作为一个物体,单一的窗户,孤立的彩色玻璃窗,一个物体或一个人在黑暗的空间里被射灯照亮,一个房间里的一根蜡烛,在光源与空间之间建立了一种类似于人与地面的依赖关系。当直接观察时,光源同时令人着迷和炫目,但是前提是相对于空间围合,光源的尺寸相对较小。当一个人背对光源时,空间感知就完全改变了,因为墙壁、地板和天花板依次变成了微弱的光源,它们的表面是巨大的,包裹着。

Light as an object, the single window, the isolated stained glass window, an object or a person spotlit in a dark space, a candle in a room, establish a relationship of dependence between source and space similar to that of figure and ground. When looked at directly, the source fascinates and dazzles at the same time, on condition, however, that the size of this source is relatively small in relation to the spatial envelope. When one turns one’s back on the source, spatial perception is completely altered, because the walls, the floor and the ceiling in turn become weak light sources whose surface is immense and enveloping.

在设计方面,由于实际或象征性的原因,我们可能会尝试使用一个独特的、集中的光源,同时出于这样或那样的原因,希望避免这种眩光和均匀照明的交替。在这种情况下,光源必须放置在眼睛高度以上(如万神殿),甚至隐藏(间接侧光)。所以眩光被用于恐吓和酷刑不是偶然的 。每个建筑项目在建造前都必须从这个角度重新审视,以避免这种侵略。太多时候,眩光会让最重要和最有价值的东西消失。

In terms of design, it can happen that we try to work with a unique, concentrated source for practical or symbolic reasons, at the same time wishing, for one reason or another, to avoid this alternation of glare and uniform lighting. In this case the source must be placed well above eye level (e.g. the Pantheon) or even concealed (indirect side lighting). It is not by chance that glare is used for intimidation and torture. Each architectural project must be reexamined from this point of view before building, in order to avoid this kind of aggression. Too often glare makes the most important and highly valued things disappear.

一系列光源 Light from a series of objects

来自一系列物体、窗户、射灯、蜡烛的光,倾向于在发光物体的外形特征和它们所照射的空间围护结构的背景特征之间建立平衡和可能的倒置。

Light from a series of objects, series of windows, spotlights, candles, tends to establish balance and a possibility of inversion between the figure character of luminous objects and the background character of the spatial envelope which they illuminate.

常规的一系列窗户,或壁灯,甚至一个条形窗户,都对空间限制的描绘做出了积极的贡献。轴线上较大或较小的窗户,或悬挂在房间中线上的一系列灯,有助于澄清空间几何形状。更自由地安排光源需要理解平衡的原则。

A regular series of windows, or wall lights, or even a strip window, make an active contribution to the delineation of spatial limits. A larger or smaller window on the axis, or a series of lights suspended on the centre line of the room, help to clarify the spatial geometry. A freer arrangement of the light sources requires understanding of the principles of balance.

洗墙光 Light from surfaces

光从表面;墙壁、天花板和地板可以用看不见的凹槽照明。空间限制因此成为光源,从光到暗有明显的渐变。

Light from surfaces; the walls ceilings and floors may be lit by invisible slots. Spatial limits thus become light sources with a noticeable gradation from light to darkness.

人们不会在百货公司或办公室的照明天花板表面观察到同样的现象,因为没有层次消除了把人物扔进浮雕的质量。天花板的主要存在,由于它的眩光和缺乏对比,是累人的。照明工程师使用额外的光源来恢复必要的对比度。直到最近几年,人们才发现一种“把这些天花板放回原位”的技术,这要归功于带有镜面反射器的天花板照明。

One does not observe the same phenomenon with the surface of the illuminated ceiling in a department store or an office, because the absence of gradation eliminates the quality of throwing figures into relief. The dominant presence of the ceiling, due to its glare and to the absence of contrast, is tiring. Lighting engineers resort to additional light sources to restore necessary contrast. It is only during recent years that a technique has been found to ‘put these ceilings back in their place’, thanks to ceiling lighting with mirrored reflectors.

夜光天花板的必然结果是,在白天,如果仔细观察,天窗实际上从未用于人们长期居住或工作的地方,只有工厂例外,因为工厂的功能需求使其他解决方案变得困难。

The corollary of the luminous ceiling is, in daytime, the skylight which, if one looks carefully, is practically never used for places where people stay or work for a long time, with the exception of factories where functional requirements make other solutions difficult.

巨大的玻璃墙反过来又降低了对比,但由于是垂直的,它并没有完全消除对比。它作为一个空间扩展的角色经常优先于照明的目的。根据它的大小和方向,过多的光和热会造成问题。

The large glazed wall, in turn plays down contrast but, by being vertical, it does not do away with it altogether. Its role as a spatial extension very often takes precedence over its purpose for illumination. According to its size and orientation, it can create problems by an excess of light and heat.

这些关于光和空间的简短考虑既重要又不完整。有时可以打破这些基本规则,以获得最合适的建筑氛围。在做礼拜的地方,祭坛后面的灯光可以引发冥想。重要的是光的研究被认为是设计和执行的不同阶段的重要组成部分。大型模型非常有用。照片是具有欺骗性的,因为胶片的敏感性无法与我们的主观感知相比。

These brief considerations on light and space are both important and incomplete. Sometimes it is possible to break these elementary rules in order to obtain the most appropriate atmosphere for the purpose of the building. In a place of worship, lighting from behind the altar can invite meditation. What is important is that the study of light be considered as an essential part of the different stages of the design and its execution. Large-scale models are very useful. Photographs are deceptive because the sensitivity of film is not comparable to our subjective perception.

天窗

在低矮的房间中央放置的天窗无论如何都不可能像太阳,尽管从表面上看是这样,因为它离太阳很近,不能被认为是产生平行光线的光源。房间里的气氛往往会变得“苍白”、满是灰尘,有时甚至是悲伤的,更少见的是庄严的。当这个开口与结构或墙壁有直接关系时,光可以通过垂直感受器下降,与空间重新建立直接联系,重新引入对比。

A skylight placed in the middle of a low room cannot, in any way, despite appearances, resemble the sun, because its proximity prevents it being considered as a source producing parallel rays. The atmosphere of the room tends to become ‘pale’, dusty, sometimes even sad or, more rarely, solemn. When this same opening has a direct relationship to the structure or to a wall, and the light can descend by means of a vertical receptor, a direct link is reestablished with the space, and contrasts are re-introduced.

阴影 Shadow

阴影,像光一样,有意识地作为一条线使用,可以用来描绘,甚至强调身体和空间的形式和边缘。檐口轮廓的阴影强调了立面的上部。当与立面齐平时,窗框产生优雅的线条,而深凹处的阴影线强调了结构的重量和厚度。木框架和墙壁之间的凹缝定义了连接处。

总之,让我们记住,在实用而非审美的层面上,光和阴影比它的大小和形式更能调节空间的使用。对比的存在或缺失,以及空间照明的数量和质量对空间的定义,都会明显地影响其潜力和居住者的健康。

Shadow, like light, used consciously as a line, can be used to delineate, even to emphasize the forms and edges of bodies and space. The shadow cast by the outline of a cornice emphasizes the upper termination of a façade. Window frames produce an elegant line when positioned flush with the façade whereas the shadow line from a deep recess emphasizes the apparent weight and thickness of the structure. The recessed joint between a timber frame and the wall defines the articulation.

In conclusion, let us remember that, on a practical rather than aesthetic level, light and shade regulate the use of a space more often than do its size and form. The presence or absence of contrast, as well as the definition of space by the quantity and quality of illumination of the space, appreciably influence its potential and the wellbeing of its occupants.


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