建筑几何学︱从基本几何形开始

为什么大部分建筑是方形?

方形建筑平面,其巨大的紧凑性常常使建筑师着迷。由于它的四个方向是直角,所以它具有一个通用的尺寸。建筑从来不是方形的,因为它的功能需要它。尽管如此,它仍然是方形的,同时又能优雅地容纳它们。这是一种理性主义的方法,而不是建筑中更实用的态度。

The building on a square plan has often fascinated the architect by its great compactness; with its four orientations at right-angles, it dopts a universal dimension. The building is never square because its functions demand it; it is square in spite of them, whilst accommodating them often with elegance. That is a rationalist approach as opposed to more pragmatic attitudes in architecture.

圆的三维扩展可以在圆柱体和球体中找到,或者更常见的是半球或圆顶,从外部看,它强调了内部空间的中心和对象的特征。这些体量的普遍特征几乎不需要强调。

当在圆上做对称的开口时,就像我们在正方形上做的那样,子空间不会形成与原始图形类似的新图形。它们是扇形,其几何标识和易读性受到损害。

方形的转换

方形的转换:真实的情况很少证明一个解释和加强方形的意义上的具体组成部分。我们通过引入元素的可能性,给它一个方向:例如由一系列平行墙对各个方向或层次结构;在这湖边的房子,一楼的房间的集群和“侵蚀”的原始形式的放置开口和封闭元素。在这两种情况下中心失去了其重要性 ,第一种情况比第二种情况更严重。

Transformation of the square: real situations rarely justify an interpretation and a reinforcement of the square in the sense of its own specific constituents. We then have the possibility of transforming it by introducing elements which give it an orientation: for example by a series of parallel walls which impose a hierarchy on the various directions or – in the case of the first floor of this lakeside house – by the clustering of the rooms and the ‘erosion’ of the original form by the placing of the openings and enclosing elements. In both cases – even more so in the first than the second – the centre loses its importance.

圆的变换

圆的变换。圆需要“庸俗化”,如果它要放弃其不朽的命运,成为一个日常空间,可行的生活。我们使用的方法和正方形是一样的:平行的墙壁,将层次结构向中心以外的其他点转移,创建碎片,等等。

Transformation of the circle. The circle requires ‘vulgarizing’ if it is to abandon its monumental destiny in order to become an everyday space, feasible for living in. The means at our disposal are the same as the square: parallel walls, trans- fer of the hierarchy towards other points than the centre, creation of fragments, etc. .

目录