建筑几何学︱房间的组织 Assembly of rooms

建筑通常结合许多房间,同时构成一个相对简单和紧凑的整体形式。所有理性的建筑组织都有一个特点,即对结构和房间分配系统的规律性进行探索。我们将只考虑几个基本原则。

Buildings generally combine many rooms whilst at the same time constituting a relatively simple and compact overall form. The search for regularity of the structure and of the system of distribution to the rooms is characteristic of all rational architectural organization. We shall restrict ourselves to the consideration of a few basic principles.

线性组织 Linear organization

走廊

线性组织可能是最常用和最基本的空间分组形式;它意味着一个线性分布系统:街道、走廊。

Linear organization is perhaps the most frequently used and most elementary form of grouping of spaces; it implies a system of linear distribution: the street, the corridor.

经济性与韵律

由于明显的经济原因,线性组织的承重墙结构往往垂直于线性扩展,而线性扩展又反过来影响分区的位置、开口的性质以及改变和扩展的可能性。这些承重墙可能与房间之间的分隔相对应,在立面上提供更大的设计自由度的同时,也赋予了空间有规律的规律性。相反地,当走廊的立面和墙壁都是承重的时候,空间的划分就有了更大的灵活性,如果需要的话,还可以改变它们。

For obvious reasons of economy, the structure of load-bearing walls in a linear organization is frequently perpendicular to the linear extension which in its turn influences the position of the divisions, the nature of the openings and the possibilities for alteration and extension. These load-bearing walls may correspond to the separations between rooms, which impose a disciplined regularity of spaces whilst offering greater design freedom in the façade. When, conversely, the façade and walls of the corridor are load-bearing, there is greater flexibility in the subdivision of spaces and, if need be, to their alteration.

开始和结束

一个线性的组织应该有一个开始和一个结束,由我们来给这些特定的地方以形式和方向,就像一个空间的中央组织很难被认为是在那个空间的任何其他位置一样。

A linear organization ought to have a beginning and an end, and it is up to us to give form and direction to these particular places, in the same way that the middle of a centralized organization of space can hardly be considered like any other location in that space.

集中式组织 Centralized organization

集中式组织引入了最大的紧凑性,并暗示了层次结构。中心性支配着环绕它的次要空间。卓越的设计在外围使用了更小的空间来容纳主要的中心空间。这样就建立了等级制度;内部控制着它的附属建筑,反之亦然,如路易斯·康在罗切斯特的一神论教堂。圆、圆屋顶和结构正交双向的正方形最符合集中式组织的内在特征。

Centralized organization introduces a maximum of compactness and implies a hierarchy. Centrality dominates the secondary spaces which surround it. Remarkable designs have used smaller spaces on the periphery to contain the major central space. A hierarchy is thus established; the interior commands its subsidiaries and vice versa as in Louis Kahn’s Unitarian church at Rochester. The circle, the cupola and the square with an orthogonal bi-directionality of the structure match best the intrinsic characteristic s of a centralized organization.

径向组织 Radial organization

径向组织,或风扇,是一种形式的中心和线性之间的组合,在这个意义上,几个系列的空间在一条线从一个中心或脊椎辐射。后者在层次结构中占有特殊的位置。它在某种程度上成为整体的“起源”。

Radial organization, or a fan, is a form of combination between centrality and linearity, in the sense in which several series of spaces in a line radiate from a centre or a spine. The latter assumes an exceptional place in the hierarchy. It becomes to some extent ‘the origin’ of the whole.

这是一种不太常见也很难处理的组织形式,尤其是因为它固有的朝向问题和它在翅膀之间留下的“残留”空间。一个人根据中心来定位自己,但几乎不可能知道自己在哪个方向,在大多数地方,辐射分支的隐式扩展创造了向周围形态过渡的问题。很少有简报能维持这种毫不含糊的等级制度;监狱、医院、行政总部、学生宿舍等隔离居住的大型等级组织和蜂窝式组织都是根据这一原则安排的。

It is a form of organization which is not very common and fairly difficult to deal with, particularly because of its inherent problems of orientation and the often ‘residual’ spaces which it leaves between wings. One orientates oneself in relation to the centre, but it is almost impossible to know in which wing one is, On most sites the implicit extension of radiating branches creates problems of transition to the surrounding morphology. Few briefs can sustain such an unequivocal hierarchy; large hierarchical and cellular organizations, living in isolation are arranged on this principle: prisons, hospitals, administrative headquarters, student hostels, etc.

当放射状的组织是紧凑的,而不是辐射走廊单元组成,是一组相邻的空间,我们发现一个特定的组织形式仍然是集中的。当结果只是一个圆的片段时,得到的单个房间并不总是令人满意的。另一方面,弗兰克·劳埃德·赖特阿尔瓦·阿尔托却以天才的手法巧妙地运用了场地,一个没有多少潜力的图解被转化成一个具有卓越品质的最终结果。

When the radial organization is compact and, instead of radiating corridors serving cells, there is no more than a grouping of adjacent spaces, we find a particular form of organization which is still centralized. When this results in mere segments of a circle, the resulting individual rooms are not always satisfactory. Frank Lloyd Wright and Alvar Aalto, on the other hand, manipulate brief and site with genius; a diagram with little potential is turned into an end result with superb qualities.

环形组织 Organization in the form of a crown

有围墙的房子是线性组织的原则,既没有开始也没有结束。它的经济在于以很少的花费获得额外的空间。这个几何图形的“礼物”是中央庭院。当这种类型的组织的走廊保持单侧,以便成为围合庭院的柱廊时,朝向就方便了。此外,如果要避免无限的线性关系,必须区分环形的入口。一个长方形的庭院比一个正方形的庭院更能起到引导作用。

Organization in the form of a crown. The house with a peristyle is a principle of linear organization with neither beginning nor end. Its economy lies in obtaining an additional space at little expense. The ‘gift’ of this geometry is the central courtyard. When the corridors of this type of organization remain unilateral in order to become colonnades enclosing the courtyard, orientation is facilitated. Moreover, the entrance of the crown must be differentiated if one wants to avoid the infinity of this linearity. A rectangular courtyard would be a better guide than a square courtyard.

网格组织 Organization on a grid plan

网格计划上的组织将元素或元素组以纵横交错的路线(例如正交)进行组装。

Organization on a grid plan assembles elements or groups of elements in a criss-cross of routes (orthogonal for example).

柏林自由大学语言学院新校区国际竞赛,1963,Candilis, Josic, Woods.

Organization on an orthogonal network, a priori nonhierarchical, accommodates a large number of elements in an orderly and comprehensible system; Candilis Josic Woods, Berlin University, 1963. 

这一原则特别适用于大规模分组。网格不适合组装单独的房间,其内部组织和目的对已经讨论过的其他空间安排保持开放。毫不奇怪,从米利都到都灵和曼哈顿的殖民地城镇的创建者选择了这种布局,因为在其未来占领的特殊要求之前必须迅速建立一种明确的秩序。层次结构被引入到网格的同质性中,或者通过维度的变化(古代的广场,或者都灵街道的某些宽度),或者通过斜线(曼哈顿的百老汇),或者通过网格方向的变化(雅典)。当网格是矩形而不是正方形时,它允许定向微分,这有助于我们的方向感。

This principle can be applied particularly to large-scale groupings. The grid is not suited to assembling individual rooms, the internal organization and purpose of which remain open to other spatial arrangements already discussed. It is not surprising that the founders of colonial towns, from Miletus to Turin and Manhattan, chose this layout, since a clear order had to be rapidly established preceding the particular requirements of its future occupation. A hierarchy is introduced into the homogeneity of the grid, either by a change in dimension (the agora at Priene in antiquity, or certain widenings of the streets in Turin), by an oblique (Broadway in Manhattan), or by a change in orientation of the grid (Athens). When the grid is rectangular rather than square, it allows a directional differentiation which helps our sense of direction.

组团式组织 Cluster

组团式组织根据邻近程度组装元素。它是拓扑的,也就是说与形式和维度无关。它暗示了历史“偶然”的附加增长,而不是人类定居点的故意设计。例如, 迪朗没有提及它,因为它源于“计划外”。在60年代和70年代,这种形式的组织盛行于许多大型住宅计划的创建。建筑师试图打破“机器居住者”、“单调”、“技术带来的重复”、“大规模”……为了创造“生动的”空间和体量。活泼的?…有人认为,没有历史就可以人为地创造出生动的历史。历史是不适于近似模拟的,除非人们求助于浪漫主义幻想的方法。在不同的情况下,一些前工业社会已经采取这种形式的集群为他们的社区。对于生活在普韦布洛的印度人来说,这种形式的栖息地符合他们的世界观。

Cluster assembles elements by proximity. It is topological, that is to say independent of form and dimension. It suggests an additive growth by historical ‘accident’, rather than the intentional design of a human settlement. Durand, for example, does not give it a mention, as it stems from the ‘unplanned’. In the sixties and seventies this form of organization prevailed in the creation of numerous large residential schemes. Architects intended to break with the ‘machine à habiter’, ‘monotony’, ‘repetition resulting from technology’, ‘large scale’ … in order to create ‘lively’ spaces and volumes. Lively? … One thought it possible to produce artificially the picturesqueness of history without history. History does not lend itself to approximate simulation, unless one resorts to methods of romantic illusion. Under different circumstances, some preindustrial societies had adopted this form of clustering for their community. For Indians living in pueblos this form of habitat corresponds to their vision of the world.

蜂巢组织:“有机的”集群通过相似的元素接近。普韦布洛阿罗约
Beehive organization: ‘organic’ cluster by proximity of similar elements. Pueblo Arroyo (from a drawing by A. van Eyck, in Forum 3, 1962). 

自由平面 plan libre

“自由平面”不是无组织状态,也不是对秩序的否定。这种二十世纪的空间构成技术是利用空间之间的相互渗透,而不是并置或细胞的排列和堆积。这一概念超出了19世纪初人们所能想象的范围,当时建筑上的限制和规划的组织很少背叛他们的伙伴关系。弗朗索瓦·埃纳比克是第一个为传统空间提供钢筋混凝土的人,而柯布西耶是其最大胆的倡导者之一。他通过将结构和维护体系与空间组织分离,在平面和剖面上提出了一个新的概念。如果这种空间语言的复杂性和元素之间的关系没有得到空间连续性的层次原则的掌握的补偿,那么它的复杂性和元素之间的关系将是令人迷惑的。在勒·柯布西耶之前,在没有钢筋混凝土的情况下,弗兰克·劳埃德·赖特已经在试验这种空间,这种空间将不再是封闭承重结构的奴隶。

The ‘plan libre’ is not anarchy or a negation of order. This twentiethcentury technique of spatial composition exploits the interpenetrations between spaces rather than the juxtaposition or the alignment and piling up of cells. This concept reaches beyond what was imaginable at the beginning of the nineteenth century when constructional constraints and organization of the plan rarely betrayed their partnership. Whilst Hennebique was the first to offer reinforced concrete to conventional spaces, Le Corbusier is one of its most daring exponents. Questioning traditional space he develops a new concept in plan and section by dissociating structure and envelope from spatial organization. The increased complexity of this spatial language and the relationships between elements would be disorienting, if it were not compensated for by the mastery of a principle of hierarchy in spatial continuity. Before Le Corbusier, and without reinforced concrete, Frank Lloyd Wright was already experimenting with this kind of space which would no longer be the slave of the enclosing load-bearing structure.

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