Buildings generally combine many rooms whilst at the same time constituting a relatively simple and compact overall form. The search for regularity of the structure and of the system of distribution to the rooms is characteristic of all rational architectural organization. We shall restrict ourselves to the consideration of a few basic principles.
线性组织 Linear organization
Linear organization is perhaps the most frequently used and most elementary form of grouping of spaces; it implies a system of linear distribution: the street, the corridor.
For obvious reasons of economy, the structure of load-bearing walls in a linear organization is frequently perpendicular to the linear extension which in its turn influences the position of the divisions, the nature of the openings and the possibilities for alteration and extension. These load-bearing walls may correspond to the separations between rooms, which impose a disciplined regularity of spaces whilst offering greater design freedom in the façade. When, conversely, the façade and walls of the corridor are load-bearing, there is greater flexibility in the subdivision of spaces and, if need be, to their alteration.
A linear organization ought to have a beginning and an end, and it is up to us to give form and direction to these particular places, in the same way that the middle of a centralized organization of space can hardly be considered like any other location in that space.
集中式组织 Centralized organization
Centralized organization introduces a maximum of compactness and implies a hierarchy. Centrality dominates the secondary spaces which surround it. Remarkable designs have used smaller spaces on the periphery to contain the major central space. A hierarchy is thus established; the interior commands its subsidiaries and vice versa as in Louis Kahn’s Unitarian church at Rochester. The circle, the cupola and the square with an orthogonal bi-directionality of the structure match best the intrinsic characteristic s of a centralized organization.
径向组织 Radial organization
Radial organization, or a fan, is a form of combination between centrality and linearity, in the sense in which several series of spaces in a line radiate from a centre or a spine. The latter assumes an exceptional place in the hierarchy. It becomes to some extent ‘the origin’ of the whole.
It is a form of organization which is not very common and fairly difficult to deal with, particularly because of its inherent problems of orientation and the often ‘residual’ spaces which it leaves between wings. One orientates oneself in relation to the centre, but it is almost impossible to know in which wing one is, On most sites the implicit extension of radiating branches creates problems of transition to the surrounding morphology. Few briefs can sustain such an unequivocal hierarchy; large hierarchical and cellular organizations, living in isolation are arranged on this principle: prisons, hospitals, administrative headquarters, student hostels, etc.
When the radial organization is compact and, instead of radiating corridors serving cells, there is no more than a grouping of adjacent spaces, we find a particular form of organization which is still centralized. When this results in mere segments of a circle, the resulting individual rooms are not always satisfactory. Frank Lloyd Wright and Alvar Aalto, on the other hand, manipulate brief and site with genius; a diagram with little potential is turned into an end result with superb qualities.
环形组织 Organization in the form of a crown
Organization in the form of a crown. The house with a peristyle is a principle of linear organization with neither beginning nor end. Its economy lies in obtaining an additional space at little expense. The ‘gift’ of this geometry is the central courtyard. When the corridors of this type of organization remain unilateral in order to become colonnades enclosing the courtyard, orientation is facilitated. Moreover, the entrance of the crown must be differentiated if one wants to avoid the infinity of this linearity. A rectangular courtyard would be a better guide than a square courtyard.
网格组织 Organization on a grid plan
Organization on a grid plan assembles elements or groups of elements in a criss-cross of routes (orthogonal for example).
柏林自由大学语言学院新校区国际竞赛，1963，Candilis, Josic, Woods.
This principle can be applied particularly to large-scale groupings. The grid is not suited to assembling individual rooms, the internal organization and purpose of which remain open to other spatial arrangements already discussed. It is not surprising that the founders of colonial towns, from Miletus to Turin and Manhattan, chose this layout, since a clear order had to be rapidly established preceding the particular requirements of its future occupation. A hierarchy is introduced into the homogeneity of the grid, either by a change in dimension (the agora at Priene in antiquity, or certain widenings of the streets in Turin), by an oblique (Broadway in Manhattan), or by a change in orientation of the grid (Athens). When the grid is rectangular rather than square, it allows a directional differentiation which helps our sense of direction.
Cluster assembles elements by proximity. It is topological, that is to say independent of form and dimension. It suggests an additive growth by historical ‘accident’, rather than the intentional design of a human settlement. Durand, for example, does not give it a mention, as it stems from the ‘unplanned’. In the sixties and seventies this form of organization prevailed in the creation of numerous large residential schemes. Architects intended to break with the ‘machine à habiter’, ‘monotony’, ‘repetition resulting from technology’, ‘large scale’ … in order to create ‘lively’ spaces and volumes. Lively? … One thought it possible to produce artificially the picturesqueness of history without history. History does not lend itself to approximate simulation, unless one resorts to methods of romantic illusion. Under different circumstances, some preindustrial societies had adopted this form of clustering for their community. For Indians living in pueblos this form of habitat corresponds to their vision of the world.
自由平面 plan libre
The ‘plan libre’ is not anarchy or a negation of order. This twentiethcentury technique of spatial composition exploits the interpenetrations between spaces rather than the juxtaposition or the alignment and piling up of cells. This concept reaches beyond what was imaginable at the beginning of the nineteenth century when constructional constraints and organization of the plan rarely betrayed their partnership. Whilst Hennebique was the first to offer reinforced concrete to conventional spaces, Le Corbusier is one of its most daring exponents. Questioning traditional space he develops a new concept in plan and section by dissociating structure and envelope from spatial organization. The increased complexity of this spatial language and the relationships between elements would be disorienting, if it were not compensated for by the mastery of a principle of hierarchy in spatial continuity. Before Le Corbusier, and without reinforced concrete, Frank Lloyd Wright was already experimenting with this kind of space which would no longer be the slave of the enclosing load-bearing structure.