建筑细部︱埃克塞特图书馆 Exeter Library

在理查兹实验室之后,卡恩建造了许多砖砌建筑,首先是罗切斯特的一神教教堂。这在一定程度上受到麻省理工学院萨里宁礼拜堂的启发,尽管卡恩对礼拜堂的反应很大程度上是负面的。Saarinen的教堂使用了承重砖砌体和砖拱,而这两种材料在现代运动中都是禁忌,这为Kahn接下来要做的提供了一个先例,不仅复兴了古老的砌体技术,而且在现代主义中重新思考结构和空间之间的关系。

After the Richards laboratory Kahn executed a number of brick buildings, beginning with the Unitarian Church at rochester. This was in part inspired by Saarinen’s chapel at MIT, although Kahn’s response to the chapel was largely negative. Saarinen’s chapel used load-bearing brick masonry and brick arches at a time when both were taboo in the Modern movement providing a precedent for what Kahn was to do next, not just the revival of archaic masonry techniques but a rethinking of the relationship between structure and space in Modernism.

在战后典型的美国建筑中,这种关系是柯布西耶自由平面的一个高度私人化的版本。虽然钢结构和混凝土框架使结构和平面的独立性成为可能,但这种设计的主要审美结果——空间相互连接和联锁的能力,以及“流动”在一起的能力——很少被用于明显的功能原因。最终的结果不是“一个新的空间世界,而是建筑的结构和空间划分变得独立。”空间布局在保留传统蜂窝特征的同时,失去了承重结构所赋予的秩序,而结构本身很可能被完全忽略。卡恩并不是唯一一个发现这一点不可接受的人,但他比其他人走得更远,他坚持一个建筑的结构划分和它的空间划分必须一致,无论这些划分多么小,一个人站在一个空间里必须感知那个空间的结构。

This relationship in typical postwar American buildings was a highly bastardized version of Le Corbusier’s free plan. While the steel and concrete frame had made possible the independence of structure and plan, the major aesthetic consequence of this-the ability of spaces to interconnect and interlock, to”flow”together- was rarely used for obvious functional reasons. The net result was not “a new world of space, but simply that structural and spatial divisions of the building became independent. Spatial layouts, while retaining traditional cellular character, lost the order imposed by load-bearing structure, while the structure itself was likely to go completely unnoticed. Kahn was not alone in finding this unacceptable, but he went further than others in insisting that the structural divisions of a building and its spatial divisions must coincide, however small those divisions might be A person standing in a space must perceive the structure of that space.

随着卡恩对传统空间和结构系统兴趣的复兴,传统砌体组件的使用也在增加。对他来说,砖的使用有明确的规则。在他后来的作品中,开口总是用拱形的,通常是分段的。在一些早期的圬工实验中,如《芝加哥论坛报》1958年建筑评论,他有区别的轴承和非承重墙体之间通过使用不同类型的混凝土砌块,但是1965年之后砌体很少用作幕墙使用的基本结构在罗彻斯特教堂——现代、开放、concrete-framed空间内部和传统蜂窝,砌体空间提供的外观,两全其美,随后卡恩作品形成的基础。

Coupled with Kahn’s revival of interest in traditional spatial and structural systems was an increased use of traditional masonry assemblies. To him there were definite rules about the way brick could be used. Steel lintels or other types of concealed reinforcement were rarely acceptable, and in his later work openings were invariably made with arches, usually segmented. In some early masonry experiments, such as the Tribune Review Building in 1958, he differentiated between bearing and nonbearing walls by the use of different types of concrete block, but after 1965 masonry is seldom used as a curtain wall The basic structures used at the rochester church——modern, open, concrete-framed space on the interior and traditional cellular, masonry space on the exterior——provided the best of both worlds and were to form the basis for numerous subsequent Kahn works.

卡恩在谈到他为菲利普·埃克塞特学院设计的图书馆时说:“我觉得阅览室应该是一个人在窗边独处的地方……一种在建筑褶皱中发现的地方。”

Kahn said of his library for Phillips Exeter Academy: “I felt that a reading room would be a place where a person is alone near a window… a kind of discovered place in the folds of construction.”

埃克塞特大学和罗切斯特大学的空间顺序是同心圆,由不同材料的不同结构构成——用卡恩斯的话来说,就是甜甜圈。最深处没有指定用途:混凝土立方体的每一面都有一个大的圆形开口,由四个混凝土墩支撑,与主网格呈45度角。一层楼深的混凝土梁支撑着顶部的天窗。从理论上讲,这个结构是一个折叠板,作用于横向支撑整个建筑。乍一看,这对于一栋八层楼的建筑来说,在结构上似乎有些过分,或许更多的是出于对结构表达的渴望,而非结构必要性。

The order of space at Exeter, as at Rochester, is concentric rings of different structures of different materials-in Kahns terms, doughnuts. The innermost has no assigned use: a concrete cube with a large circular opening on each side is supported by four concrete piers at 45 degrees to the primary grid. An X brace of one-story-deep concrete beams spans the top and supports the skylight above. In theory this structure is a folded plate acting to laterally brace the entire building. At a glance it seems somewhat structurally excessive for an eight-story building, and perhaps owes more to a desire for structural expression than to structural necessity The second doughnut holds the books.

混凝土平板由混凝土柱支撑,混凝土柱位于四边的方形港湾中。在一层,这个区域被用作流通桌,卡片目录和一个大楼梯,每一边的三个方形海湾被合并成一个,通过消除两排中间的柱子。这就需要在二楼设置一个转换结构来承担失去的柱子的荷载。在这里,一个空间的一个结构的概念即使不是过度的限制,也是极端的。对于放置卡片目录的空间来说,40英尺的自由空间真的是必要的吗?外层由支撑平板混凝土板的砖承重墙组成。侧支撑是由砖横撑提供的,它将甜甜圈划分成一系列的房间,每个房间都包含两扇窗户和四个内置的隔间。

Concrete flat plates are supported by concrete columns in square bays on the four sides. On the ground floor this area is used for the circulation desk, card catalogue and a grand stair, and the three square bays of each side are merged into one by means of eliminating the two center rows of columns. This requires a transfer structure at the second floor to pick up the load of the lost columns. Here the concept of one structure for one space is carried to extreme if not excessive limits.Is a 40-foot free-span space really necessary for a space housing a card catalogue?The outer layer is composed of brick bearing walls supporting a flat-plate concrete slab. Lateral bracing is provided by brick crosswalls dividing the doughnut into a series of rooms, each containing two windows and four built-in carrels.

和弗兰克·劳埃德·赖特一样,卡恩也想要整块外墙,未完工,这样内部和外部表面就会是一样的。虽然在当代建筑中经常使用实心砖墙,但典型的当代砌体墙在其厚度内包含一个防水的腔体、阻止热量流动的隔热层、防止冷凝的蒸汽屏障,以及将整个建筑重新绑在一起的金属加强层。除了阻碍卡恩对整体建筑的简单欲望,这种复杂的组合也不容易融入他的哲学。对他来说,墙不是机器。每一种材料和构件——砖、混凝土、管道系统——都有自己的“顺序”。像现代砖墙这样的专业组件的组装,并不容易与这种思维方式相协调。

Like Frank Lloyd Wright, Kahn desired monolithic exterior walls, unfinished so that the interior and exterior surfaces were the same, but like Wright he faced the difficulty of the ayered nature of the modern wall. Although solid brick walls are often used in contemporary construction, the typical contemporary masonry wall contains within its thickness a cavity for waterproofing, insulation to retard the flow of heat, a vapor barrier to prevent condensation, and metal reinforcing to tie the whole thing back together again. In addition to hindering Kahn’s simple desire for monolithic building, this complicated assembly did not fit easily into his philosophy. A wall was not to him a machine. Each material and component–brick, concrete, ductwork -had its own”order. ” An assembly of specialized components such as the modern brick wall, was not easily reconciled with this way of thinking.

在条件允许的情况下,卡恩建造了单片墙,比如在印度和巴基斯坦,那里的建筑和建筑性能标准没有那么专业。印度管理学院(Indian Institute of Management)有8至24英寸厚的整块砖墙,采用粘结模式铺设。(有趣的是,勒柯布西耶(Le Corbusier) 10年前在这座城市建造的Millowner大楼使用了空腔墙。几乎所有卡恩设计的美国建筑都使用空洞和刚性隔热材料。他很少不止一次地用同样的方法来解决他的问题,而这些墙的发展表明,他一直在努力使他的建筑哲学与当代美国实践的现实相协调。

When conditions permitted, Kahn built monolithic walls, such as in India and Pakistan, where construction and standards of building performance were less specialized. The Indian Institute of Management has monolithic brick walls 8 to 24 inches thick laid in bonded patterns. (Interestingly enough, the Millowner’s building built by Le Corbusier in the same city ten years earlier had used a cavity wall. Almost all Kahn’s American buildings use cavities and rigid insulation. He rarely used the same solution to his problem more than once, and the development of these walls shows an ongoing effort to reconcile his philosophy of construction with the realities of contemporary American practice.

在埃克塞特·卡恩使用两种类型的砖外墙之前。第一种用于印度和巴基斯坦,是真正的单片墙,具有丰富的细节和传统砖墙的结合模式。理查兹和罗切斯特的墙是现代的、专业的、复杂的,但缺乏第一种墙的视觉品质,尤其是没有结合模式。在埃克塞特,卡恩试图将两者结合起来。

Before Exeter Kahn had used two types of brick exterior wall. The first, used in India and Pakistan, was a true monolithic wall, and had the richness of detail and bonding patterns of traditional brick walls. The walls of Richards and Rochester were modern, specialized, and sophisticated, but lacked the visual qualities of the first wall type, particularly the absence of bonding patterns. At Exeter Kahn sought to combine the two.

埃克塞特墙分为两层,外层为12英寸厚的砖和砌块,为承重墙,内层为4英寸厚的砖,为幕墙。该空腔之间的保温蒸汽屏障,和防水在传统的空腔墙。外墙采用类似普通粘结的方式粘结,而内墙只有一砖厚,采用简单的连续粘结。这与罗切斯特大学使用的墙体类型相反,或者是典型的砌体空腔墙,较薄的一层放在外面。埃克塞特墙的优势是纯粹的视觉,因为它公开了粘结结构部分的外墙。在许多人看来,这可能是一个如此微妙的结果,几乎不值得付出努力,但在卡恩看来,埃克塞特长城与罗切斯特长城完全不同。

The Exeter wall has two layers, an outer layer of 12-inch-thick brick and block which is a bearing wall and an inner layer of 4-inch-thick brick which is a curtain wall. The cavity between holds insulation vapor barrier, and waterproofing as in a traditional cavity wall. The outer wall is bonded in a pattern resembling common bond, while the inner, being only one brick thick, is in simple running bond. This is an inversion of the wall type used at Rochester, or for that matter the typical masonry cavity wall, where the thinner layer is placed on the outside. The advantage of the Exeter wall is purely visual since it exposes the bonded structural portion of the wall to the exterior. This may seem to many a result so subtle as to be hardly worth the effort, but to Kahn’s eye the Exeter wall was everything that the Rochester wall was not.

埃克塞特是卡恩最纯粹的砖结构。这里很少用砖作幕墙材料。至少在概念上,每一块砖都有助于建筑的结构支撑。没有钢或其他隐藏的门楣。承重墙上的每一个开口都是一个带有平拱的框架(具有非常浅的曲线的拱)。在传统的砌体结构中,随着荷载的增加,墙体往往向底部加厚。埃克塞特墙的厚度是恒定的,但每个桥墩的表面尺寸比上面的地板宽一块砖。因此,这些桥墩有一个明显的锥形,使它们看起来有点像埃及的塔。有许多码头之间的开口是不透明的地方,但这里的空间充满了木镶板,砖,表明非结构化。根据Jay Wickersham的说法,整个外墙是无承重的,因为楼板的加固模式将荷载带到隔间之间的交叉墙。然而,和所有的结构理性主义者一样,卡恩在表达一些东西的同时也隐藏了另一些东西。例如,楼板以一种相当复杂的方式与墙壁相接。在桥墩处,它向下弯曲几英尺,以便在这些桥墩之间的拱处提供额外的支撑,桥墩被往后拉,这样楼板就不会压在桥墩上。外观上没有显示这个复杂组件的任何提示。

Exeter is the purest of Kahn’s brick structures. Rarely is brick used here as a curtain wall material. At least conceptually, every brick contributes to the structural support of the building. There are no steel or other concealed lintels. Each opening in the bearing wall is a frame with a flat arch (an arch with a very shallow curve). In traditional masonry structures a wall often becomes thicker toward the base as the load increases. The Exeter wall is of constant thickness, but each pier is one brick wider in its face dimension than that of the floor above. As a result there is a noticeable taper to these piers that makes them appear something like Egyptian pylons. There are many places where the openings between piers are opaque,but here the voids are filled with wood paneling, not brick, to indicate that they are nonstructural. According to Jay Wickersham the entire exterior wall is nonbearing since the pattern of reinforcing in the slab carries the load to the cross walls between cubicles. Like all structural rationalists however, Kahn expresses some things while concealing others. The floor slab, for example, meets the wall in a fairly complex way. At the piers it turns down several feet for additional support at the arches between these piers it is held back so that the slab does not bear on the arch. No hint of this complicated assembly appears on the facade.

展现卡恩最佳状态的细节,正是那些描述这座建筑不是什么样子的细节。由于横向支撑的需要,人们希望这座建筑有沉重的实心角落。它不;角落被打破,以显示每面墙的边缘,从而表明有一个内部混凝土框架支撑着建筑,使坚实的角落没有必要。类似的情况发生在外墙的内wythe。这一层墙是不承载的,事实上,它是由一个可压缩的填料从墙中分离出来的,以确保混凝土板不承重在墙上,正是在这面墙上,建筑中唯一的lintels,每个开口上的红砂岩,出现了。这个开口可以跨越一个拱的外层,也许它会看起来更好的如果,但卡恩不想误导我们,这堵墙的性质和功能即他似乎不希望拱门支撑板。这堵墙本可以看起来是铁板一块的,大多数观察家可能会认为它是铁板一块的,但卡恩拒绝故意欺骗我们。

The details that show Kahn at his best are those that describe what the building is not. Due to the need for lateral bracing one would expect this building to have heavy solid corners. It does not; the corner is broken open to show the edges of each wall, thus demonstrating that there is an internal concrete frame bracing the building and making the solid corner unnecessary. A similar condition occurs at the inner wythe of the exterior wall. This layer of the wall is nonbearing fact it is separated from the wall by a compressible filler to ensure that the concrete slab does not bear on the wall-and it is in this wall that the only lintels in the building, the red sandstone ones over each opening, occur. This opening could have been spanned with an arch as is the outer layer, and perhaps it would have looked better if it had been, but Kahn does not want to mislead us as to the nature and function of this wall ie,he does not want the arch to appear to support the slab.The wall could have been made to appear to be monolithic, and most observers probably assume that it is, but Kahn refuses to deliberately deceive us. 

理查兹大楼和罗彻斯特使用的暴露和综合设施系统并没有被废弃,而是进行了大量修改,主要是因为埃克塞特是一座八层楼的建筑。和其他同等规模的建筑一样,它有两个机械系统,一个用于外围,一个用于内部空间,因为它们的加热和冷却负荷的条件不同。圆周系统,而不是aur,使用的是水,这只需要小管道来分配,因此不会像有管道系统的空气系统一样造成空间容纳问题。

The system of exposed and integrated utilities used at the Richards Building and Rochester was not abandoned but heavily modified, primarily because Exeter is an eight-story building. Like other buildings of comparable size, it has two mechanical systems, one for the perimeter and one for the interior spaces, due to the differing conditions of their heating and cooling loads. The perimeter system, rather than aur, uses water, which requires only small pipes for distribution and thus does not pose the same problems of spatial accommodatio as an air system with ductwork.

建筑的每个角落都有一个防火楼梯、卫生间等的核心,它还包含垂直的竖井,将空气分配到每一层。空气分布在每一层由两个圆的水平管道运行之间的走廊上面这本书领域,阅读区域空气分布的扩散器大部分位于导管本身但偶尔管会,穿透墙壁,重现一个线性扩散器。这些扩散器与罗切斯特大学使用的简单槽不同,可以进行改造以控制气流。应该注意的是,表面相反,管道系统很少暴露。

Each corner of the building contains a core for fire stairs, toilet rooms, etc.,that also contains vertical shafts to distribute air to each floor. The air is distributed on each level by two round horizontal ducts running above the corridor that separates the book areas and the reading areas The diffusers that distribute the air are for the most part located in the ducts themselves but occasionally a duct will turn, penetrate the wall, and reemerge as a linear diffuser. These diffusers, unlike the simple slots used at Rochester, can be modified to control the flow of air. It should be noted that, appearances to the contrary, the ductwork is rarely exposed.

埃克塞特的开窗系统是索尔克开发的开窗系统的一个变种,尽管在某些方面形成结构开口的方法是相反的。外墙的典型开口有两层楼高,底部有一个卡莱尔式的天窗,上面有一盏大的单灯,用来照亮阅览室的内部。较大的高窗的玻璃被设置在尽可能深的墙上,木框架被嵌入砖墙。卡恩试图让玻璃几乎看不见,以达到毁灭的质量。相比之下,较低的窗户与外墙齐平,而小窗口只设置为玻璃细节所需的深度。这扇窗户是不可操作的,但是内部的木板可以滑过窗户的开口,忽略了景色,但保留了上面的光线。在索尔克,所有的外部木材都是柚木;所有内部木材都是光洁的白橡木。

The fenestration system at Exeter is a variation of that developed for Salk, although the method of forming structural openings is in some ways the opposite. The typical opening in the exterior wall is two stories high, with a carrel at its base containing a small view window and a large single light above to light the reading room interior. The glass of the larger high window is set as deep into the wall as possible, and the wood frame is recessed into the brickwork. Kahn sought to make the glass almost invisible, to achieve the quality of a ruin. By contrast the lower window is placed flush with the face of the exterior wall, and the small view window is set only as deep as the glazing detail requires. This window is not operable but an interior wood panel may be slid across the opening, omitting the view but preserving the light above. As at Salk all exterior wood is teak; all interior wood is clear-finished white oak.

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