设计笔记︱孟加拉国达卡政府中心 Bangladesh National Capital

这些机构是灵感之家:学校、图书馆、实验室、体操馆。建筑师在接受想要的空间要求之前,会考虑灵感。他问自己,一个区别于另一个的本质是什么。当他感觉到不同时,他就接触到了它的形式。激发设计形式。

The institutions are the houses of the inspirations: school, libraries, laboratories, gymnasia.The architect considers the inspi-ration before he can accept the dictates of a space desired. He asks himself what is the nature of one that distinguishes itself from another. When he senses the difference, he is in touch with its form. Form inspires design.

在思考机构的意义时,我突然想到,首要机构源于对生活的激励,而这种激励在人类的制度中得到了温顺的表达。这是我希望能感受到的建筑灵感,它的形式可以带来新的爆炸的项目和设计,表达身体健康之美。那将是一个沐浴、锻炼和聚会的地方。它是运动员获得荣誉和追求完美身体的地方。

这样一个机构的想法是受罗马浴室的启发。考虑到今天的资源,我的脑海中充满了丰富而愉悦的空间环境。

It occurred to me in thinking about the meaning of institutions that the prime institution stems from the inspiration to live which was remained meekly expressed in the institutions of man. It is an inspiration for building I hope to sense, the form of which could lead to new explosions of programs and design expressing the beauty of physical well-being. It would be a place of baths, exercise and meeting. It is the place where the athlete is honored and a man strives for physical perfection.

The idea of such an institution is inspired by the Roman bath.I have in mind an environment of spaces far reaching in richness and delight considering the resources of today.

在旅舍的防眩廊的制作过程中,又出现了组合件的问题。在这个元素中,人们认识到光线既在门廊的内部,也在门廊的外部。如果你有阳光——不一定是阳光照在室内。固体的黑暗和开口的亮度之间的对比不是很大,因此,你感觉不到眩光。随着建筑的拔地而起,错落有致的橡树为门廊提供了采光的机会,但要想给室内带来阳光,就需要一缕光线。太阳是不受欢迎的。到目前为止,我只解决了问题的一半。我在陈述它,但我还没有解决它。我对可能的开口所作的各种各样的探索,有些是对过去的回忆,并不是真正的具体形式,尽管我认为其中一些比其他形式更具体。

The problem of an element in a corposition appears again in the making of the anti-glare porches for the hostels. In this element it is recognized that the light be on the inside of the porch as well as the outside. If you have light-not necessarily sunlight-on the interior. the contrast between the darkness of the solids and the brightness of the openings is not great and therefore, you do not feel the glare. The staggering of orches as the building rises offers the chance to get light into the porch, but a sliver of light is needed to give the presence of light to the interior. The sun is unwelcome. So far I have only half solved the problem. I am stating it, but I have not solved it. The varous explorations I have made of possible openings, some reminiscent of the past, are not really concrete forms although I think some of them are much more so than others.

孟加拉国达卡政府中心 Bangladesh National Capital
孟加拉国达卡政府中心 Bangladesh National Capital

在议会大厦,我介绍了一个发光元素的内部平面。如果你看到一系列的柱子,你可以说柱子的选择是光的选择。作为固体的柱子构成了光的空间。现在把它反过来认为柱子是中空的,而且更大的墙壁可以自己照亮,然后空洞的房间,柱子是光和制造者可以在复杂的形状和空间,给光空间的支持者。我正在努力发展这个元素,使它成为一个诗意的实体,在它所处的位置之外还有它自己的美。这样它就类似于我上面提到的作为光的给予者的实柱。

In the assembly I have introduced a light-giving element to the interior of the plan. If you see a series of columns you can say that the choice of columns is a choice in light. The columns as solids frame the spaces of light. Now think of it just in reverse and think that the columns are hollow and much bigger and that their walls can themselves give light, then the voids are rooms, and the column is the maker of light and can take on complex shapes and be the supporter of spaces and give light to spaces. I am working to develop the element to such an extent that it becomes a poetic entity which has its own beauty outside of its place in the composition. In this way it becomes analogous to the solid column I mentioned above as a giver of light.

1963年的平面图,左边是花园入口,右边是祈祷大厅,中间是被办公室包围的集会大厅。
1963年的平面图,左边是花园入口,右边是祈祷大厅,中间是被办公室包围的集会大厅。

一开始的核心并不是一种损失,而是通过对修道院精神的重新思考而实现的。正是因为这个原因,我对这个核心的兴趣,在形式的实现,形式的意义,实现事物不可分割的部分。也正是因为这个原因,我开始意识到,在巴基斯坦国会大厦的会议厅里,我必须在入口处引入一座清真寺。

The nucleus of the very beginning was not a loss but new realizations came to it by reconsidering the spirit of monastery. It is for this reason my interest in this nucleus, in form realization, form meaning, the realization of inseparable parts of something. It is for this reason also that I came to realize that in doing the [Magistrate’s] Chamber of the capitol of Pakistan-I had to introduce a mosque in the entrance.

自从第一个任务书给了我,居住建筑增加,它改变了湖两岸的居住比例。研究表明,由于风和太阳的作用,湖面上的建筑重新定向,虽然保留了原有的线条方向,但形成了新的群组。滨海空地已发展成为一个入口花园,减少了湖泊。许多草图旨在回答几何的顺序,这成为一个尺寸系统。从规则到自由发挥的转变将是一个不断的过程。平衡,不对称。(1964年6月)

Since the first program was given to me, and since these remarks were first spoken, addenda have arrived which changed the proportions of the accomodations on either side of the lake. Study, given to the breeze and the sun has reoriented buildings on the lake causing new groupings though the direction of the original lines are retained. The esplanade has grown into an entrance garden reducing the lake. Many of the sketches are intended to answer the order of geometry which becomes a dimensioning system. The transformation from its rule to a freer play will be a constant course of study. Balance, not symmetry. (June, 1964)

总体规划被构思为达卡城内一个明确界定的保留区,包括花园、水道和喷泉的政府建筑,与道路和人行道相连。该计划的基础是一条主要的南北轴线。这条轴线的一端是行政组团,另一端是公共机构组团,由一块设计为公共公园的土地隔开。其他土地区域用于住房、花园和满足人及其家庭的社会需要。部分土地将预留给高层住宅,包括领事馆的住宅和办公室。该地区的物理条件,特别是该场地的条件,要求对太阳、风、天气、雨和洪水等要素形成积极的设计态度。传统上,挖掘区域是为了湖泊和排水,从而获得填充物,使道路和建筑物高于洪水水位。

The master plan is conceived as a clearly defined reservation within the city of Dacca, encompassing the Government buildings in a setting of gardens, waterways and fountains, interconnected with roads and walks. The basis of the plan is a major north-south axis. On one end of this axis is the Citadel of Assembly and on the other, the Citadel of Institutions, separated by an area of land designed as the Public Park. Other land areas are devoted to housing, gardens, and the social needs of men and their families. A portion of land will be reserved for higher residential buildings, including residences and offices for consulates. The physical conditions of this region, and particulary of this site, demand that a positive design attitude be developed toward the elements of sun, wind, weather, rain, and floods. Traditionally, areas are excavated for lakes and drainage, thereby obtaining fill to raise roads and buildings above flood levels.

我想做的是建立一种基于哲学的信仰,我可以把它交给巴基斯坦,这样无论他们做什么,都能得到回应。我觉得这个在我看完任务书几周后制定的规划很有力量。它含有所有的成分吗?如果有一个缺失,它就会瓦解……

What I’m trying to do is establish a belief out of a philosophy I can turn over to Pakistan, so that whatever they do is always answerable to it. I feel as though this plan which was made weeks after I saw the program, has strength. Does it have all the ingredients? If only one is lacking it  will disintegrate…

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